Ecosystem overviews

Bay of Biscay and the Iberian Coast Ecoregion

Pressure: Substrate loss

​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Activities such as coastal construction, renewable energy devices, aquaculture, and fishing, all contribute to either sealing or changing natural substrates in this area.

Marine and coastal habitats have been lost in recent decades to land claim for port, industry, residential development and agriculture, coastal defences (including dykes, seawalls, and beach nourishment schemes), aquaculture infrastructure, shipping channels, roads, piers, marinas, and waste water treatment facilities.

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Bay of Biscay and the Iberian Coast Ecoregion

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