Ecosystem overviews

Celtic Seas Ecoregion

Pressure: Substrate loss

​​​​​​​​​​​Substrate loss pressure is associated with activities such as land claim and new coastal defences or the installation of infrastructures such as hydrocarbon production facilities, wind farm foundations, marinas, pipelines, cables, and scour protection.​​​​​​​​​​​

The Celtic Seas ecoregion has a large number of artificial structures along its coastlines​. These include:

  • land reclaimed for port and industrial zones
  • coastal defences such as dykes, seawalls, and beach nourishment schemes to prevent erosion and protect against flooding 
  • aquaculture infrastructure
  • shipping channels
  • residential development
  • tourist accommodation
  • roads
  • piers
  • marinas and waste-water treatment facilities that cater for a growing population and tourism demands

The presence of offshore installations such as wind farms also changes the substrate.

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Location of land reclamation projects (orange triangle) and hard (green outline) and soft (yellow outline) coastal defence structures. (Source: OSPAR.) ​Click o​n the image to enlarge.

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Celtic Seas Ecoregion

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