Ecosystem overviews

Bay of Biscay and the Iberian Coast Ecoregion

Pressure: Other pressures

​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Other relevant pressures in this ecoregion are:

  • ​Underwater noise, caused by activities such as shipping, tourism and recreation, and renewable energy installations, which may affect marine mammals, fish, and other organisms using sound or pressure senses.
  • Introduction of non-indigenous species happens primarily through shipping and aquaculture and has affected the benthic community and foodwebs.
  • Introduction of contaminating compounds, due primarily to coastal discharges and maritime transport (shipping). This pressure can affect all ecosystem components but may accumulate in the foodweb, having an effect in particular on higher trophic levels (mammals and birds). Some of these compounds may be very stable and remain in the ecosystem for many decades after their introduction.
  • Marine litter, including microplastics and plastic waste derived from many human activities. Larger items can entangle larger organisms while smaller items, including microplastics, can be ingested by many organisms.​​​​​​

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Bay of Biscay and the Iberian Coast Ecoregion

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