Advice Statement
ICES Ecoregions
1987TimesCadium and lead: Determination in organic matrices with electrothermal furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry
9/29/2020 10:52 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
A methodological approach apt to reduce deterioration of analyte response
is the application of chemical separation techniques prior to
the determination step. Extraction of metal ions in the form of a
chelate by an organic solvent is one of the most suitable methods.
The solvent extraction procedure, described below, is based on the
following principle: metal ions are coordinated with 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone
("dithizone") to form metal chelates which are then
transferred to an organic solvent (toluene). Several metals (Cu, Hg,
Ag, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Bi) are generally extracted simultaneously (Iwantscheff,
atomic absorption; spectrophotometry; lead; cadmium10.17895/ices.pub.5027N/A
TextU. Harms2707-6997978-87-7482-255-4
1987TimesTrace metals in sea water: Sampling and storage methods
9/29/2020 10:54 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Sampling procedures for dissolved trace metals in sea water have progressed
to the extent that it is now possible to describe reliable
methods for the collection, preservation, and storage of seawater
samples. A review of the sampling methods being used for trace metals
in sea water has recently been produced (Berman and Yeats, 1985). The
accumulated experience of a number of workers in the field as well as
the results from several intercalibration exercises run by ICES, IOC,
and others have been used to determine the best sampling procedures.
For many metals a single procedure is adequate, however, for some
others separate procedures must be used.
sample handling; sample storage; trace metals; seawater10.17895/ices.pub.5028N/A
TextP. A. Yeats2707-6997978-87-7482-257-8
1987TimesCadium in marine sediments: Determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy
9/29/2020 10:55 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Cadmium is one of the most important toxic elements to be determined
in environmental samples. Cd has proved, however, to be a difficult
element to determine with good precision and relative accuracy. This
is shown by the results of recent intercalibration exercises.
(a) In the Baltic Sediment Intercalibration Exercise, Brtigmann and
Niemisto (1987) found deviations in reported Cd results unacceptable.
Relative standard deviations (rsd's) were 48 % and 63 % for
for the two intercalibration samples.
(b) In the National Research Council of Canada (NRCC) intercalibration
(NRC MS1/TM), Berman and Boyko (1985) found that less than
one-third of the 35 laboratories submitting Cd values appeared
competent in handling samples at the 0.6 mg/kg level.
(c) In the ICES First Intercalibration Exercise on the Trace Metals
in Marine Sediments (1/TM/MS) report, Loring (1987) found that
participating laboratories had difficulty with Cd determinations.
Rsd's were 42 %, 39 %, and 53 % for the three intercalibration
atomic absorption; spectroscopy; graphite furnace; marine sediment; cadmium10.17895/ices.pub.5029N/A
TextR. T. T. Rantala; D. H. Loring2707-6997978-87-7482-258-5
1987TimesLipophilic organic material: An apparatus for extracting solids used for their concentration from sea water
9/29/2020 10:55 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Lipophilic organic substances, whether man-made, mobilized by human
activities, or of recent natural origin, are usually dissolved in sea
water at such minute concentrations that the chemical characterization
and quantitative determination of single compounds are possible only
after a sufficient quantity has been collected by concentration from
relatively large (of the order of 100-1000 litres) volumes. Essenti ....
ally two techniques have found widespread application in marine organic
chemistry and pollution research, i.e., extraction, either
batchwise or continuous, with a suitable water-immiscible solvent
(Duinker and Hillebrand, 1983, and references cited therein) or sorption
onto solids (Duinker and Hillebrand }983, lac. cit.; Ehrhardt,
1983). Described below is a new apparatus and technique for purifying
sorbant material from substances interfering with ultra-trace
analyses and for desorbing analytes.
extraction; lipophilic substances; seawater10.17895/ices.pub.5030N/A
TextM. Ehrhardt2707-6997978-87-7482-259-2
1987TimesPrimary production: Guidelines for measurement by 14C incorporation
9/29/2020 11:17 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
These guidelines aim to standardize, in the ICES area, the metho?~logy
of primary production measurements made by determination of C
incorporation, taking into account, as far as possible, the diversity
of techniques in use at the time of writing. As well as dealing with
purely technical aspects of the method, new concepts have been incorporated
which represent considerable modifications to the current approach
to primary production determination and which may alter the
calculated daily production estimates.
carbon 14 incorporation; primary production measurements; methodology; standardization10.17895/ices.pub.5031N/A
TextICES Working Group on Primary Production2707-6997978-87-7482-260-8
1987TimesControl procedures: Good laboratory practice and quality assurance
9/29/2020 11:18 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The value of Quality Control became clear in the 1950s during the reconstruction
of Japanese industry, which had acquired a reputation for manufacturing
cheap products of poor quality. During the reconstruction process,
the work of Deming, an American pioneer in quality control, was used to advantage
(20, 37).
In the 1970s the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) collaborated closely in the development of
Good Laboratory Practice regulations (8, 13). The motive for developing such
guidelines was the lack of reliable and comparable methods of obtaining results.
In 1979 the principles of Good Laboratory Practice were made mandatory
for U.S. Government contractors.
During 1979/1980 in Europe a group of experts under the auspices of the Organisation
for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) produced the
document "OECD Principles of Good Laboratory Practice" (1). The purpose of
this document was to promote the development of data of high quality, because
good comparability of test data is a prerequisite to mutual acceptance
of the data among countries. Legislation on this document was enacted in
1981 by members of the OECD.
good laboratory practice (GLP); quality assurance; Quality control10.17895/ices.pub.5032N/A
TextF. A. J. M. Vijverberg; W. P. Cofino2707-6997978-87-7482-261-5
1990TimesSuspended particulate matter: Collection methods for gravimetric and trace metal analysis
9/29/2020 11:18 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Filtration is the most commonly used method for separating the
dissolved and particulate fractions of seawater samples. A wide
variety of filter types with different pore sizes has been used for
this purpose. Filtration of water samples for trace metal analysis
has generally been done using either Millipore 0.45 ~m cellulose
acetate/nitrate filter membranes, Nuclepore 0.4 ~m polycarbonate
filter membranes, or similar filter membranes produced by other
Several studies have shown that the concentrations of suspended
particulate matter (SPM) measured using different types of filters
can vary significantly. For example, Tambiev and Demina (1982) have
shown, using samples from the Baltic Sea, that 0.7 ~m cellulose
nitrate filters can give a suspended particulate matter concentration
that is five times that found with 0.4 ~m Nuclepore polycarbonate
or 0.5 ~m Dubna polyethylene-terephthalate membranes. The
metal blanks were also higher for the cellulose nitrate membranes.
Likewise, Brzezinska-Paudyn et ale (1985) observed that 0.45 ~m
cellulose acetate and 0.45 ~m glass fibre filters gave significantly
higher particulate matter concentrations than did 0.4 ~m Nuclepore
filters. Danielsson (1982) found that 0.45 ~m Millipore membrane
filters introduce large errors due to changing pore size during
filtration. He also showed that the iron concentrations in the
filtrates decreased with time and became nearly zero when the
filters clogged.
suspended particulate matter; gravimetric analysis; trace metals; collection methods10.17895/ices.pub.5033N/A
TextP. A. Yeats; L. Brügmann2707-6997978-87-7482-262-2
1990TimesSoft bottom macrofauna: Collection and treatment of samples
9/29/2020 11:19 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The aim of these recommendations1 is to standardize the methods used
by different scientists for long-term benthos surveys, in order to
increase the comparability of results for different areas and to
enable, inter alia, detection of large-scale changes in the system
that would not otherwise be detected by a single scientist.
In these recommendations, soft bottoms are defined as those with
sediments ranging from mud to, and including, sand. For descriptive
surveys, macrofauna is defined as animals retained on a 1 mm sieve
(mesh size 1 x 1 mm). However, if a finer sieve is used for some
other purpose, the 1 mm sieve fraction should always be studied and
reported separately to allow comparisons. For a more comprehensive
treatment of sampling design, procedures, and alternatives, the
reader is referred to, e.g., Kajak (1963), Cochran (1977), Elliott
(1977), Downing and Rigler (1984), Holme and McIntyre (1984), and
Baker and Wolff (1987).
macrofauna; soft bottom; sample handling; sample treatment; methodology; standardization10.17895/ices.pub.5034N/A
TextH. Rumohr2707-6997978-87-7482-263-9
1990TimesSediments and suspended particulate matter: Total and partial methods of digestion
9/29/2020 11:19 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
In order to determine the major and trace metal concentrations of
marine sediments and suspended particulate matter by wet chemical
methods, it is necessary to dissolve all or part of the sample.
Sample digestion methods commonly used are: (a) total decomposition,
(b) strong acid digestion, or (c) moderate or weak acid extractions.
This leaflet describes in detail the wet chemical methods for both
total decomposition and weak acid extraction of sediments and
suspended particulate matter.
marine sediment; suspended particulate matter; wet chemical methods; acid digestion; decomposition10.17895/ices.pub.5035N/A
TextD. H. Loring; R. T. T. Rantala2707-6997978-87-7482-264-6
1990TimesOrganic halogens: Determination in marine media of adsorbable, volatile, or extractable compound totals
9/9/2020 11:04 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The nature and concentrations of halogenated organic compounds in
waste waters are largely dependent on the source of the waste water,
and only general statements can be made on this SUbject. The results
of numerous investigations on the characterization of halo-organics
in waste waters have been published, but the compilation of these
data is beyond the scope of this leaflet. It can be stated, however,
that half of the chemical substances considered 'priority pollutants'
are halogenated organics (Keith and Teillard, 1979) and that halogenated
organic compounds belong to the chemical substances (List 1)
whose use in the European Economic Community should be minimized to
the lowest possible level
organic halogens; halogenated organic compounds; determination methods; methodology10.17895/ices.pub.5036N/A
TextC. Grøn2707-6997978-87-7482-265-3
1991TimesBiological effects of contaminants: Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) embryo bioassay
9/9/2020 11:03 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The oyster embryo bioassay was initially developed by Woelke (1972).
The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) in the UK
have modified the method to improve the accuracy of the test and
allow its use on board research vessels. This paper describes the
modified method which has been used to obtain a measure of the deterioration
in biological water quality in UK coastal' areas receiving
anthropogenic discharges. MAFF have successfully used this protocol
since 1976
biological water quality; contaminants; oyster embryo; bioassays; methodology10.17895/ices.pub.5037N/A
TextJ. E. Thain2707-6997978-87-7482-266-0
1991TimesHydrocarbons: Review of methods for analysis in sea water, biota, and sediments
9/9/2020 11:02 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Hydrocarbons, a class of chemical substances consisting exclusively
of the elements carbon and hydrogen, are trace constituents of all
compartments of the marine environment, i.e., water, suspended
solids, organisms, and sediments. The sources of hydrocarbons are
both natural in the sense that they occur irrespective of man's interference,
and artificial as their occurrence is linked to a multitude
of human activities.
hydrocarbon analysis; methodology; marine biota; marine sediment; seawater; aromatic hydrocarbons10.17895/ices.pub.5038N/A
TextM. Ehrhardt; J. Klungsøyr; R. J. Law2707-6997978-87-7482-267-7
1991TimesBiological effects of contaminants: Microplate method for measurment of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in fish
9/29/2020 11:22 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Interest in the use of mixed function oxidase (MFa) as a monitoring tool for measuring the
effects of pollntants derives from basic research carried out over the past twenty years (see
review in Payne et al., 1987).
The MFa system catalyses the degradation of both endogenous and exogenous lipophilic
substrates to polar water-soluble products which are more easily excreted. It is present at
relatively low activity in wild fish and its activity increases dramatically, apparently to enhance
the degradation and clearance of offending compounds. This suggests that the activity of the
MFa system in naturally contaminated organisms might be a measure of the degree of chemical
contamination. There have been a number of field studies in which elevated MFa activity in
fish was found to be associated with contamination by hydrocarbons (payne et al., 1987).
contaminants; bioassays; ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase; EROD10.17895/ices.pub.5039N/A
TextD. Burke; R. Mayer; A. Klotz; J. Stegeman; C. Walsh2707-6997978-87-7482-268-4
1991TimesTemporal trend monitoring: Introduction to the study of contaminant levels in marine biota
9/29/2020 11:24 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The study of contaminants in marine species, sediments, and sea water has been of interest to
the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) since the early 1970s. The
investigation of temporal trends (changes over time in one area) in contaminant levels in fish
and shellfish, both as monitors of their environment and from a human health concern, and in
sediments and sea water is 3 topic currently being addressed by the ICES Working Group on
the Statistical Aspects of Trend Monitoring (WGSATM).
marine biota; temporal trend monitoring; contaminants10.17895/ices.pub.5040WGSATM
TextJ. F. Uthe; C. L. Chou; R. K. Misra; P. A. Yeats; D. H. Loring; C. J. Musial; W. Cofino2707-6997978-87-7482-269-1
1991TimesTemporal trend monitoring: Contaminant levels in tissues of Atlantic cod
9/29/2020 11:25 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The study of trends in trace contaminant concentrations in marine species has been of interest
to the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) since the early 1970s. The
investigation of temporal trends in contaminant levels in fish, both as monitors of their
environment and from a human health concern, is a topic under consideration by the ICES
Working Group on the Statistical Aspects of Trend Monitoring (WGSATM) as a part of the
Cooperative ICES Monitoring Studies Programme (CMP). Many problems were encountered
during the first attempts by WGSATM to analyse the CMP data. In addition to the presence of
outlying observations and significant differences between years in their coefficients of regression
of (log) contaminant level(s) on (log) biological variable(s), many inconsistencies were found
in the annual sampling structures (Anon., 1987). These often reflected the inability to replicate
the size (length, age) structure characterizing earlier samples and the failure to obtain a
sufficiently wide range in the covariables selected for study. These inconsistencies affected the
annual regression lines, yielding, in many instances, insignificant regressions.
atlantic cod; temporal trend monitoring; contaminants10.17895/ices.pub.5041WGSATM
TextJ. F. Uthe, R. K. Misra, C. L. Chou; D. P. Scott; C. J. Musial2707-6997978-87-7482-270-7
1991TimesBenthic communities: Use in monitoring point-source discharges
9/29/2020 11:27 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The response to a request from the ICES Advisory Committee on Marine Pollution (ACMP)
for advice on this topic has been structured along the following lines:
Section A - a general review of benthic studies in relation to pollution. This was felt to be
important in view of increasing interest in the application of a variety of biological effects
techniques, as benthic communities represent only one of many possible targets in the study of
the effects of point-source discharges. The account also addresses the issues raised concerning
the nature and significance of observed responses;
Section B - guidelines for the conduct of benthic monitoring programmes around point-source
Section C - examples of effective survey design; and
Section D - a review of the use of meiofauna in pollution studies; this is a relatively new area
of application, and was felt to warrant separate treatment.
benthic communitities; monitoring; point source discharges10.17895/ices.pub.5042N/A
TextH. L. Rees; C. Heip; M. Vincx; M. M. Parker2707-6997978-87-7482-271-4
1996TimesNutrients: Practical notes on their determination in sea water
9/29/2020 11:28 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
These notes are aimed primarily at the freshwater chemist beginning to conduct analyses of
nutrients in saline waters, but they will also be useful to the complete newcomer to the
application of automated colorimetric techniques to natural waters in general. The emphasis is
on automated techniques, but much of the material should be of interest to analysts who still use
manual methods.
The term 'nutrients' is a little difficult to define precisely, but from the point of view of the
marine chemist, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and silicate are those most commonly
encountered. For a more detailed discussion and definitions of terms, see Grasshoff et al.
nutrients; seawater; sampling; marine chemistry10.17895/ices.pub.5043MCWG
TextD. Kirkwood2707-6997978-87-7482-272-1
1996TimesContaminants in marine organisms: Pooling strategies for monitoring mean concentrations
9/29/2020 11:48 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Samples of marine organisms collected for contaminant monitoring are often pooled before being
chemically analysed. The main reasons for pooling samples are:
1) to obtain a sufficient quantity of tissue to make the chemical analysis possible;
2) to reduce the overall cost of chemical analyses;
3) to improve the precision of the estimated mean contaminant concentration in a population
by increasing the sample size without increasing the number of chemical analyses.
However, there are several questions associated with pooling, including:
• what is an appropriate pooling strategy?
• how should data from pools be statistically analysed?
• how should results derived from pooled data be interpreted?
This document is an introduction to the statistical aspects of pooling. Unfortunately, it is not
possible to consider all the situations in which pooling might arise, nor to describe the many types
of statistical analysis that might be appropriate. The scope is too large, and we do not know all
the answers. Here consideration is given to the relatively simple case of estimating the mean
concentration of a contaminant in a population; it shows the typical problems encountered in
devising an appropriate pooling strategy and statistically analysing data from pools. In particular,
it shows how the choice of the number of pools and the number of individuals in each pool allows
a balance to be made of the precision of the estimated mean concentration against the sampling
and analytical costs incurred in obtaining that estimate.
contaminants; marine organisms; pooling10.17895/ices.pub.5044WGSATM
TextM. D. Nicholson; R. J. Fryer2707-6997978-87-7482-274-5
1996TimesCommon diseases and parasites of fish in the North Atlantic: Training guide for identification
9/29/2020 11:48 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
During the past 20 years, there has been an increasing number of field surveys investigating the
occurrence and distribution of fish diseases as a tool for monitoring the effects of environmental
changes, including marine pollution. Fish diseases are considered to be an appropriate indicator
in this context because the outbreak of a disease represents an end-point of biological significance
integrating all environmental factors affecting fish health.
In the beginning of the 1980s it was felt, in the scientific community involved in fish disease
studies, that it would be useful on an international basis to compare and combine the results of the
different groups studying fish diseases. This would then present an overall picture and evaluation
of the health status of fish populations in the study areas. However, it was soon realized that the
results on disease prevalences available for different fish species and different areas were often
derived from studies using non-standardized methodologies; thus, the results were not comparable.
To meet this problem, two ICES Sea-going Workshops on the Methodology of Fish Disease
Surveys were held, in 1984 and 1988, initiated by the ICES Working Group on Pathology and
Diseases of Marine Organisms (WGPDMO) (Dethlefsen et al., 1986; ICES, 1989). The major
aims of these workshops were to set up recommendations for standardized methods for sampling,
diagnosis, and reporting of fish diseases. Such standardization would enable investigators to meet
minimum requirements which would allow international comparisons of long-term trends in spatial
and temporal distribution patterns.
Arising from the workshops, the WGPDMO decided in 1990 that it would be useful to produce
this Training Guide for the Identification of Common Diseases and Parasites of Fish in the North
Atlantic, which should be published in a way that it could be used during work on board research
vessels or under other field conditions.
The objectives of this Training Guide are to summarize the recommendations and conclusions of
the Sea-going Workshops and, in order to enable a proper diagnosis, to present a set of
photographs showing selected examples of common diseases in major fish species of the North
This Training Guide gives advice to specialists and non-specialists on the following topics:
• fish species suitable for disease monitoring;
• sampling procedures;
• disease examination procedures;
• diseases useful for monitoring purposes and their diagnosis and classification;
• reporting of results;
• statistical methods applicable for data analysis
North Atlantic; parasites; diseases; identification10.17895/ices.pub.5045WGPDMO
TextD. Bucke; D. Vethaak; T. Lang; S. Mellergaard2707-6997978-87-7482-275-2
1998TimesTemporal trend monitoring: Robust method for analysing contaminant trent monitoring data
9/29/2020 11:51 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This method of analysis is intended for data which have been collected according to the
following sampling guidelines for biota (fish and shellfish):
Cooperative ICES Monitoring Studies Programme, Purpose (3):
Provision ofan analysis oftrends over time in pollutant concentrations in selected
areas especially in relation to the assessment of the efficacy of control measures
(ICES, 1984),
and Oslo and Paris (aSPAR) Commissions' Joint Monitoring Programme (IMP), Purpose (d):
Assessment of the effectiveness of measures taken for the reduction of marine
pollution in the framework ofthe Conventions (aSPAR, 1994).
JMP Purpose (d) is being replaced in the new aspAR Joint Assessment and Monitoring
Programme (JAMP) by the following:
To determine temporal trends, either as a means of assessing the effectiveness of
policy measures, or to assess, by the use of suitable indicators, changes and
variability in the quality ofthe marine environment (aSPAR, 1995).
The main characteristics of 'trend data' collected in this way are:
I) biota are collected annually at the same time within each year;
2) this time should be outside the spawning period;
3) the same size range of the target species should be sampled each year;
4) the sample size should be the same each year.
There are other characteristics which relate to the collection and treatment of individual
species. For example, samples of fish should be length stratified; mussels should be
homogenized into three equal bulked samples.
The implications of this sampling protocol are that between-year biological variation (e.g.,
mean length, condition, stock composition) is controlled, and that within-year biological
variation (e.g., length) can be removed. This is the basis of the method of analysis described
here, and of methods used in the past.
contaminants; trend monitoring10.17895/ices.pub.5046WGSAEM
TextM. D. Nicholson; R. J. Fryer; J. R. Larsen2707-6997978-87-7482-276-9
1998TimesChlorobiphenyls in marine sediments: Guidelines for determination
9/30/2020 9:41 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The analysis of chlorinated biphenyls in sediments generally includes extraction with organic
solvents, clean-up, removal of sulphur, colullUl fractionation and gas chromatographic
separation, mostly with electron capture detection. All of the steps in the procedure are
susceptible to insufficient recovery and/or contamination. Different methods applied to each of
these steps are discussed with their advantages and disadvantages. Where possible, quality
control procedures are recommended in order to check the method's performance. Gas
chromatographic conditions are discussed with regard to injection, separation, detection and
system performance. In addition, the quality control aspects relating to calibrants, extraction,
and clean-up are considered. These guidelines are intended to encourage and assist analytical
chemists to critically (re)consider their methods and to improve their procedures and/or the
associated quality control measures, where necessary.
Chlorobiphenyls; marine sediments; guidelines10.17895/ices.pub.5047N/A
TextF. Smedes; J. de Boer2707-6997978-87-7482-277-6
1998TimesBiological effects of contaminants: Cholinesterase inhibitation by organophosphate and carbamate compounds
9/30/2020 9:45 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The recent developmeut of biomarkers based on the study of biological responses of organisms
exposed to chemical contaminants has provided the biochemical tools essential to the
implemeutation of programmes for monitoring the biological effects of contamiuauts. At the
iuitiative of ICES aud UNESCO-IOC study groups, several iuternational workshops have
advocated the development of biochemical methods for contaminant monitoring programmes in
the marine environment.
Among the major contaminants in the marine environment, insecticides have the potential to
cause ecotoxicological effects because of their strong persistence (e.g., organochlorines) or
high toxicity (e.g., organophosphates and carbamates). Although the transfer of these
contaminants to the marine environment is generally diffuse and chronic, there are occasions
when accidental discharges can cause ecological and economic impacts. An example of such an
event was the loss of several tonnes of carbamates (furathiocarb) from a ship at sea and their
subsequent impact on the French coast in December 1993 and January 1994. A biomarker to
monitor specifically the effects of organophosphates and carbamates is needed to facilitate the
assessment of the discharge of these substances into the marine environment.
Acetylcholinesterase (AChElEC inhibition has been used as a biomarker of the effects
of organophosphate and carbamate compounds (Coppage and Braidech, 1976; Nemcsok et aI.,
1985; Zinkl et al., 1987; Day and Scott, 1990). The existence of extremely low thresholds for
induction of inhibitory effects on AChE suggests that detection is possible after exposure to
insecticide concentrations of around 0.1 to I flg r' (Klaverkamp and Hobden, 1980; Habig et
aI., 1986). Data concerning the levels of these contaminants in the different marine
compartments are scarce, but studies on sediment and living matter have revealed
concentrations above the induction threshold (Barcelo et al., 1991).
contaminants; Cholinesterase inhibitation; organophosphates; carbamates10.17895/ices.pub.5048N/A
TextG. Bocquené; F. Galgani2707-6997978-87-7482-278-3
1998TimesBiological effects of contaminants: Determination of CYP1A-dependent mono-oxygenase activity in dab by fluorimetric measurement of EROD activity
9/30/2020 9:49 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This paper describes a method for the determination of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) in fish liver by the measurement of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity. The proposed method is by fluorescent assay of resorufin using internal standardization. The method is specifically for measurements made in dab (Limanda limanda L..), but is suitable for adaption to other species by small changes in assay conditions. The principle of the method, the sampling requirements, the assay procedures and the reporting of the results are described. Sources of error and quality control procedures are also specified.
contaminants; CYP1A-dependent mono-oxygenase; Dab; EROD activity; fluorimetric measurement; ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase10.17895/ices.pub.5049N/A
TextR. Stagg; A. McIntosh2707-6997978-87-7482-279-0
1999TimesBiological effects of contaminants: Use of imposex in the dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus) as a bioindicator of tributyltin pollution
9/30/2020 10:01 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This document describes a method for detecting contamination of the marine environment by
tributyltin (TBT) using a sensitive neogastropod, the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus (L.), as a
bioindicator. Exposure of female N. lapillus to TBT induces masculinization; this induction of
masculinization has been termed 'imposex'. The indices that have been employed to measure
imposex in N. lapillus are described here, together with a brief account of the biology of this
contaminants; imposex; dogwhelk; tributyltin10.17895/ices.pub.5050N/A
TextP. E. Gibbs2707-6997978-87-7482-280-6
1999TimesBiological effects of contaminants: Measurement of DNA adducts in fish by 32P-postlabelling
9/30/2020 10:08 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This document describes in detail the 32P-postlabelling method and its application to fish.
Several recent studies have shown that the 32P-postlabelling method can be used to detect and
measure the levels of DNA modified by large, hydrophobic aromatic compounds in teleosts.
Moreover, the levels of hepatic DNA adducts in wild fish positively correlate with the
concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) present in marine sediments in
several cases, and a strong positive correlation has been observed between sediment
concentrations of PACs and the prevalence of neoplastic lesions in liver of marine flatfish.
Laboratory studies with model PACs and sediment extracts also have shown that the PAC-DNA
adducts formed are persistent and have chromatographic characteristics similar to DNA adducts
detected in wild fish. These findings suggest that the levels of hepatic DNA adducts found in
fish tissues can function as molecular dosimeters of exposure to potentially genotoxic
environmental contaminants, such as high molecular weight PACs. The 32P-postlabelling assay
has been used as a marker of exposure to potentially genotoxic contaminants in environmental
monitoring studies, such as NOAA's National Status and Trends (NS&T) Program and in the
Bioeffects Surveys of NOAA's Coastal Ocean Program.
contaminants; DNA adducts; 32P-postlabelling10.17895/ices.pub.5051N/A
TextW. L. Reichert; B. L. French; J. E. Stein2707-6997978-87-7482-281-3
1999TimesBiological effects of contaminants: Quantification of metallothionein (MT) in fish liver tissue
9/30/2020 10:09 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This document describes methods to analyse the protein metallothionein in fish tissues.
Metallothionein is induced by and binds essential (Cu, Zn) and non-essential (Cd, Hg) metals
and is used in monitoring programmes as a marker for environmental metal exposure. The main
focus is on the use and development of immunochemical procedures (ELISA). In addition, two
alternative methods, electrochemical and spectrophotometric, are described.
contaminants; metallothionein; fish liver tissue10.17895/ices.pub.5053N/A
TextK. Hylland2707-6997978-87-7482-282-0
1999TimesSoft bottom macrofauna: Collection, treatment, and quality assurance of samples
9/30/2020 10:11 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The aim of these recommendations is to standardize the methods used by different scientists for
benthos surveys in order to increase the comparability of results for different areas.
The results of ICES/HELCOM Quality Assurance workshops, intercalibrations, and ring tests
have been incorporated in this set of recommendations in order to increase the quality,
reliability and, thus, comparability of benthos data at a time when an increasing number of
researchers and institutions are engaged in sorting and analysing benthos samples before their
final evaluation and the storage of information in public data banks. The choice of an
appropriate sampler depends on the average living depth of the infauna in question, which can
range from the upper millimetre down to almost one metre. Possible discrepancies between the
penetration depth of the sampler and the actual living depth must be considered when analysing
the results. This set of recommendations covers all steps from the design of the sampling
programme to considerations of which gear to use, and all ship-board methods such as sampling
with grabs, corers, dredges, and trawls. There is no single standard sampling gear for benthos
investigations. The choice of a suitable sampler is a compromise between specific sampling
characteristics in different sediment regimes in the area to be sampled, good handling
characteristics at sea in bad weather conditions, suitability for various ships, financial
limitations, tradition, and scientific questions. Criteria for the rejection of samples are identified.
Treatment of samples is described in detail including sieving, transfer of the sample to the
sample vessel, fixation, staining, and labelling, followed by a description of laboratory
procedures such as sorting, taxonomic identification, and biomass determinations. A list of
items for in-house quality assurance is included together with diagrams of suitable sieving
devices and details for a warp-rigged Van Veen grab.
soft bottom macrofauna; samples; quality assurance10.17895/ices.pub.5054BEWG
TextH. Rumohr2707-6997978-87-7482-283-7
2001TimesBiological effects of contaminants: Sediment bioassay using the polychaete Arenicola marina
9/30/2020 10:12 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Thain, J., and Bifield, S. 2001. Biological effects of contaminants: Sediment bioassay using the
polychaete Arenicola marina. ICES Techniques in Marine Environmental Sciences, No. 29. 16
The method described here is a whole-sediment reworker bioassay using the polychaete
Arenicola marina, a direct deposit feeder that is widely distributed in European coastal waters
and on the east coast of North America. This method has been tested nationally in the UK as
well as in ring tests under the Paris Commission. It is suitable for carrying out bioassays on
field-collected sediments and also for toxicity testing. Bioassay endpoints include both mortality
and a non-lethal indication of effect (inhibition of casting).
contaminants; sediment bioassay; toxicity10.17895/ices.pub.5055N/A
TextJ. Thain; S. Bifield2707-6997978-87-7482-284-4
2004TimesBiological monitoring: General guidelines for quality assurance
9/30/2020 10:26 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
As a consequence of the absence—or improper application—of measures to assure the quality
of biological data, information about variations in the status of natural populations both in space
and time is often uncertain or misleading, and the effects of political measures to improve the
quality of the marine environment cannot be adequately assessed. Therefore, the acquisition of
relevant and reliable data is an essential component of any research and monitoring programme
associated with marine environmental protection. To obtain such data, the whole analytical
process must proceed under a well-established Quality Assurance (QA) programme (see Section
7, below, for a definition of terms typically employed in QA activity).
biological montoring; quality assurance10.17895/ices.pub.5056N/A
2004TimesRecruitment studies: Manual on precision and accuracy of tools
9/30/2020 10:28 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This manual is one of the results of the project Precision and Accuracy of Tools in Recruitment
Studies (PARS), financed by the EU (FAIR-CT96–1371). The project PARS is concerned with
improving the methodologies used in investigations and the monitoring of the early life stages
of fish larvae, especially herring and sardine. These are important in both stock assessments and
strategic research intended to improve predictive capability. The project deals with precision
and accuracy issues in two categories of measurements, which together encompass most of the
data that are routinely required from samples of early life stages of fish:
• the growth and condition of individuals;
• the origin of individuals.
recruitment studies; precision; accuracy; tools10.17895/ices.pub.5057N/A
TextM. Belchier; C. Clemmesen; D. Cortes; T. Doan; A. Folkvord; A. Garcia; A. Geffen; H. Høie; A. Johannessen; E. Moksness; H. de Pontual; T. Ramirez; D. Schnack; B. Sveinsbo2707-6997978-87-7482-253-0
2004TimesBiological effects of contaminants: Quantification of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in fish blood
9/30/2020 10:50 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This document describes a colorimetric method to quantify the enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid
dehydratase (ALA-D) in fish blood. ALA-D is an enzyme in the heme synthesis pathway. The
activity of the enzyme is inhibited by lead (Pb) and it has, therefore, been used as a biomarker
for lead exposure and effects in mammals, birds, and fish. This paper describes optimal
conditions for the kinetic determination of ALA-D activity in fish blood, standardized to protein
contaminants; δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase; fish blood10.17895/ices.pub.5058MCWG
TextK. Hylland2707-6997978-87-7482-254-7
2004TimesChemical measurements in the Baltic Sea: Guidelines on quality assurance
9/30/2020 10:52 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This document provides an introduction to quality issues, in general, and quality assurance in
Baltic marine monitoring laboratories, in particular. The guidelines are intended to assist
laboratories in starting up and operating their quality assurance systems. For laboratories with
existing quality systems, the guidelines may give inspiration for issues that can be improved.
The guidelines contain information for all levels of staff in the marine laboratory.
Sections 1, 2, 3, and 6 together with Annexes B-1 (Quality manual) and B-3 (Quality audit) give
guidance on organizational technical quality assurance principles that are relevant to
administrative managers.
Sections 1, 2, 5, and 6 with Annexes B-1 (Quality manual), B-6 (Reference materials), and B-3
(Quality audit), regarding the implementation and operation of a quality system, are the main
sections of relevance for quality managers.
For technical managers, all sections in the main part of the document are relevant. The
guidelines provide technical managers with a description of the principles concerning how to
introduce and maintain the technical aspects of quality assurance.
It is believed that analysts will find all of the guidelines and annexes relevant regarding
optimization of their analytical work. The applicability of the various annexes and, where
applicable, their associated appendices, will, however, depend on the specific job description of
each analyst.
It is the intention of the guidelines that other members of the laboratory staff can find use for
specific parts of the guidelines, e.g., Annex B-5 (Sampling), which contains principles in
relation to sampling procedures and documentation.
These guidelines have been prepared by the ICES/HELCOM Steering Group on Quality
Assurance of Chemical Measurements in the Baltic Sea (SGQAC)1 for use in association with
the HELCOM Cooperative Monitoring in the Baltic Marine Environment (COMBINE)
Programme, and the former Baltic Monitoring Programme. These QA guidelines have been
Baltic Sea; quality assurance; marine chemistry10.17895/ices.pub.5059SGQAC
2004TimesBiological effects of contaminants: Measurement of lysosomal membrane stability
9/30/2020 11:11 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Lysosomes are ubiquitous cellular organelles that provide a waste disposal and macromolecular
recycling system (autophagy) and also a membrane-bound compartment for intracellular
digestion of food ingested by the cells. They accumulate many toxic metals and organic
chemical contaminants, providing an evolutionarily primitive detoxication capacity, which if
overloaded results in lysosomal damage leading to cell injury, tissue dysfunction, and reduction
in animal “health status”. Major reactions of lysosomes to pollutants include loss of membrane
integrity, enlargement associated with autophagy, and accumulation of lipid and lipofuscin (agepigment).
These types of responses have been widely used to test for the effects of toxic
contaminants in both experimental investigations and environmental impact assessments.
Several methods are available to measure lysosomal functional status: these include
measurement of lysosomal membrane stability in both frozen tissue sections and live cells.
Protocols for the implementation of these methods are described here in practical detail for
mussel/molluscan digestive gland or hepatopancreas and flatfish liver. Cytochemically
determined latency of selected lysosomal marker enzymes is used as the measure of stability in
frozen sections, and retention time of the chromogenic dye neutral red, as the measure of
lysosomal integrity in live cells. Guidelines are included for sample handling, data analysis, and
interpretation of results.
contaminants; lysosomal membrane stability10.17895/ices.pub.5060N/A
TextM. N. Moore; D. Lowe; A. Köhler2707-6997978-87-7482-286-8
2004TimesBiological effects of contaminants: Use of intersex in the periwinkle (Littorina littorea)as a biomarker of tributyltin pollution
9/30/2020 11:11 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The method described here is for detecting contamination of the marine environment by the
biocide tributyltin (TBT) using the prosobranch snail Littorina littorea (L., 1758) as a
bioindicator. This species is widely distributed in European coastal waters and on the east coast
of North America. The method has been tested nationally in Germany as well as in international
laboratory performance studies under the Joint Assessment and Monitoring Programme (JAMP)
of the OSPAR Commission, as organized by QUASIMEME. Exposure of female L. littorea to
TBT induces a masculinization, which has been termed “intersex”. The indices that have been
employed to measure intersex in L. littorea are described, together with a brief account of the
biology of this organism.
contaminants; intersex; periwinkle; tributyltin10.17895/ices.pub.5061WGELECTRA
TextJ. Oehlmann2707-6997978-87-7482-288-2
2004TimesBiological effects of contaminants: Use of liver pathology of the European flatfish dab (Limanda limanda L.) and flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) for monitoring
9/30/2020 11:13 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This publication provides quality assurance guidelines for the use of liver pathology of flatfish
in biological effects of contaminants monitoring programmes. Information on the sampling
procedures, including macroscopic examination, and minimum numbers and size categories of
fish required to provide statistical rigour, is included. Details for laboratory processing and
staining methods for histological assessment are also given, including protocols for resin
embedding. Criteria for the histopathological diagnosis of liver sections are provided under
categories on “early non-neoplastic toxicopathic lesions”, “foci of cellular alteration”, “benign
neoplasms”, and “malignant neoplasms”, and descriptions of the normal appearance of liver
tissue from dab (Limanda limanda) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) are included. More specific
criteria are given for the different lesion types occurring in each of these categories. Each lesion
type is represented by one or more colour micrographs taken from haematoxylin and eosinstained
sections to depict the key features. A diagnostic key for nodular hepatocellular lesions is
included and sections on quality assurance, data treatment, and data submission are also
contaminants; liver pathology; Dab; flounder; monitoring10.17895/ices.pub.5062WGPDMO
TextS. W. Feist; T. Lang; G. D. Stentiford; A. Köhler2707-6997978-87-7482-289-9
2005TimesReview of analytical methods for determining metabolites of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in fish bile
9/30/2020 11:13 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
In fish, metabolites of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in gall bladder bile can be used as biomarkers for recent environmental exposure to PACs. These metabolites in the bile result from hepatic biotransformation processes whereby the lipophilic parent PACs are transformed in two steps (hydroxylation and subsequent conjugation) to more soluble forms and then passed to the gall bladder for elimination from the organism. As a biomarker of exposure, the determination of PAC metabolites in bile has several advantages over other assessment techniques. Several bile PACs are strong fluorophores and can thus be measured semi-quantitatively and very easily by means of straightforward fluorescence detection techniques. For example, fixed fluorescence detection and synchronous fluorescence scanning can be used for this purpose. These techniques are excellent for rapid screening of overall PAC exposure levels, but less suitable for the determination of individual compounds. The next level of resolution is reached with a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation of the conjugated bile metabolites prior to the fluorescence detection, so that individual metabolites and their patterns are discernable. Furthermore, PAC metabolites in bile can be enzymatically hydrolyzed to allow detection of free hydroxy PACs. After a centrifugation step the sample can be measured directly by HPLC/fluorescence (F). For analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) an extraction procedure is normally used to separate the hydroxy PACs from the bile matrix; derivatization can be used in order to increase separation and sensitivity. The latter set of methodological approaches can be used to determine individual metabolites, and a large number of hydroxy PACs are available as standards for accurate quantitation. In general, GC/MS methods are optimal for smaller compounds with 2–3 rings due to their better selectivity, while HPLC/F often provides better detection limits for larger metabolites with 4–5 rings. In the present review, the state-of-the-art for the various alternative methods is presented. Aspects of analytical quality control, interlaboratory comparability of data and the use of certified reference materials are also discussed. The advantages and limitations of each approach are discussed with respect to the use of PAC metabolites in bile as biomarkers of environmental PAC exposure in fish.
polycyclic aromatic compounds; fish bile; metabolite determination10.17895/ices.pub.5063N/A
TextF. Ariese; J. Beyer; G. Jonsson; C. P. Visa; M. M. Krahn2707-6997978-87-7482-291-2
2006TimesBiological effects of contaminants: Measurement of scope for growth in mussels
9/30/2020 11:14 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Scope for growth (SFG) is a method of assessing the whole-animal physiological response to
sublethal stress induced by pollutants. It has been applied widely in small- and large-scale
pollution monitoring programmes in various regions of the world, ranging from temperate to
tropical. SFG was primarily developed for use with suspension-feeding mussels (Mytilus
edulis or similar indigenous species) and in combination with the analysis of chemical
contaminants in mussel tissues. SFG is based on the measurement of physiological responses,
such as feeding and respiration rate, and is derived from the difference between energy
acquisition (rate of feeding and digestion) and energy expenditure (metabolic rate). The
method has been successfully tested nationally in a range of UK monitoring programmes and
internationally as part of IOC (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission) Biological
Effects Workshops to evaluate and compare pollution effects measurements at different levels
of biological organization
contaminants; mussel10.17895/ices.pub.5064N/A
TextJ. Widdows; F. Staff2707-6997978-87-7482-292-9
2008TimesBiological effects of contaminants: The use of embryo aberrations in amphipod crustaceans for measuring effects of environmental stressors
9/30/2020 11:19 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This report describes the methodology for assessing the proportions and different
types of embryo aberrations in both sediment‐dwelling and nektonic amphipods.
Determination of malformed embryos is a sensitive method of detecting the effects of
contaminants, such as trace metals and hydrophobic organic contaminants. Furthermore,
it is also possible to derive information about non‐contaminant environmental
effects, e.g. oxygen deficiency and temperature stress, by discriminating between different
types of embryo aberrations. Thus, the main advantage of the method is to
separate general effects of contaminants from other environmental stressors. It is a
general bio‐indicator that is sensitive to all kinds of xenobiotics and is applicable for
measuring effects of long‐term chronic impact of individual chemicals or mixtures of
contaminants, as well as acute local effects from point source discharges in situ.
contaminants; embryo aberrations; amphipod crustaceans; environmental stressors10.17895/ices.pub.5065N/A
TextB. Sundelin; A. K. Eriksson Wiklund; A. T. Ford2707-6997978-87-7482-293-6
2009TimesGuidelines for the study of the epibenthos of subtidal environments
9/30/2020 11:28 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
These Guidelines for the Study of the Epibenthos of Subtidal Environments document
a range of sampling gears and procedures for epibenthos studies that meet a
variety of needs. The importance of adopting consistent sampling and analytical
practices is highlighted. Emphasis is placed on ship‐based techniques for surveys of
coastal and offshore shelf environments, but diver‐assisted surveys are also considered.
The account extends earlier work by the ICES Benthos Ecology Working Group on
methods for studying the benthic communities of hard substrata (Connor, 1995; see
Annex 1). It also complements the ICES Techniques in Marine Environmental Sciences
(TIMES) guidelines for the study of the soft‐bottom macrofauna (Rumohr, in prep.),
the phytobenthos (Kautsky, in prep.), and other publications dealing with benthic
sampling methods, notably Eleftheriou and McIntyre (2005).
Coverage of sampling gears is not exhaustive, and others may be added in future editions.
The target audience includes marine scientists new to epibenthic studies as well
as established practitioners who require further detail on sampling practices in order
to meet various objectives of contemporary interest.
epibenthos; subtidal environments10.17895/ices.pub.5066BEWG
TextM. J. N. Bergman; S. N. R. Birchenough;  Á. Borja; S. E. Boyd; C. J. Brown; L. Buhl-Mortensen; R. Callaway; D. W. Connor; K. M. Cooper; J. Davies; I. de Boois; K. D. Gilkinson; D. C. Gordon Jr; H. Hillewaert; H. Kautsky; M. de Kluyver; I. Kröncke; D. S. L2707-6997978-87-7482-294-3
2009TimesSoft-bottom macrofauna: Collection, treatment, and quality assurance of samples
9/30/2020 11:27 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The results of ICES/HELCOM Quality Assurance workshops, intercalibrations, and
ring tests have been incorporated into this set of recommendations to increase the
quality, reliability and, therefore, comparability of benthos data before their final
evaluation and storage in public databanks. These recommendations are timely,
given the increasing number of researchers and institutions that are engaged in
sorting and analysing benthos samples. This document covers all steps, from the
design of the sampling programme, to considerations of which gear to use, as well as
all shipboard methods, such as sampling with grabs, corers, dredges, and trawls.
There is no single, standard sampling gear for benthos investigations. The choice of
an appropriate sampler depends on the average living depth of the infauna of
interest; this depth can range from the uppermost millimetre down to almost 1 m.
When analysing the results, possible discrepancies between the penetration depth of
the sampler and the actual living depth of the organisms must be considered. The
choice of a suitable sampler is a compromise between specific sampling
characteristics in different sediment regimes in the area to be sampled, good handling
characteristics at sea in bad weather conditions, suitability for various ships, financial
limitations, tradition, and scientific questions posed. Criteria for the rejection of
samples are identified. Treatment of samples is described in detail, including sieving,
transferring of the sample to the sample vessel, fixation, staining, and labelling.
Laboratory procedures for sorting, taxonomic identification, and biomass
determination are described. A list of items for in‐house quality assurance is
included, as well as details for a warp‐rigged van Veen grab
soft bottom macrofauna; samples; quality assurance10.17895/ices.pub.5067BEWG
TextH. Rumohr2707-6997978-87-7482-295-0
2009TimesDetermination of Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in sediment and biota
9/30/2020 11:27 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This document provides advice on the analysis of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)
in sediment and biota. The analysis of HBCD in sediment and biota generally
involves extraction with organic solvents, clean‐up, and either gas chromatographic
separation with mass‐spectrometric (MS) detection or liquid chromatography with
MS detection. All stages of the procedure are susceptible to insufficient recovery
and/or contamination. Where possible, quality‐control procedures are recommended
to check the method’s performance. These guidelines are intended to encourage and
assist analytical chemists to reconsider their methods and to improve their
procedures and/or the associated quality‐control measures where necessary.
Keywords: hexabromocyclododecane, sediment, biota, sample pretreatment, storage,
extraction, clean‐up, calibration, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry.
Hexabromocyclododecane; HBCD; sediment; biota10.17895/ices.pub.5069MCWG
TextL. Webster; P. Bersuder; J. Tronczynski; K. Vorkamp; P. Lepom2707-6997978-87-7482-296-7
2009TimesDetermination of parent and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in biota and sediment
9/30/2020 12:01 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
This document provides advice on the analysis of parent and alkylated polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in total sediment, sieved fractions, suspended
particulate matter, and biota (shellfish). The determination of parent and alkylated
PAHs in sediment and biota includes extraction with organic solvents, clean‐up, and
analysis by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (GC‐MS). Advice is
given on the treatment and storage of samples. Extraction and clean‐up methods
commonly used are described. GC‐MS is the only recommended method for the
analysis of both parent and alkylated PAHs and advice is provided on standards and
calibration. All steps in the procedure are susceptible to insufficient recovery and/or
contamination. Quality‐control procedures are recommended to check the
performance of the method. These guidelines are intended to encourage and assist
analytical chemists to reconsider their methods critically and to improve their
procedures and/or the associated quality‐control measures, where necessary.
parent and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; PBDEs; sediment; biota10.17895/ices.pub.5070MCWG
TextL. Webster; J. Tronczynski; P. Korytar; K. Booij; R. Law2707-6997978-87-7482-297-4
2009TimesDetermination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment and biota
9/30/2020 12:02 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
This document provides advice on the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers
(PBDEs) in biota and sediment. The determination of PBDEs in sediment and biota
generally involves extraction with organic solvents, clean‐up, and gas
chromatographic separation with mass‐spectrometric detection. All stages of the
procedure are susceptible to insufficient recovery and/or contamination. Therefore,
quality‐control procedures are important to check the method’s performance. These
guidelines are intended to encourage and assist analytical chemists to reconsider
their methods and to improve their procedures and/or the associated quality‐control
measures where necessary.
polybrominated diphenyl ethers; PBDEs; biota; sediment10.17895/ices.pub.5071MCWG
TextL. Webster; J. Tronczynski; P. Bersuder; K. Vorkamp; P. Lepom2707-6997978-87-7482-298-1
2010TimesMonitoring organotins in marine biota
9/30/2020 12:02 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
These guidelines provide best practices for the measurement of organotin compounds
in biota for monitoring programmes. Target compounds include tributyltin
(TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and monobutyltin (MBT) as well as triphenyltin (TPhT), diphenyltin
(DPhT), and monophenyltin (MPhT). The bivalve Mytilus edulis can be a
suitable target species for the monitoring of organotins. Sampling strategy as well as
transportation and storage are important for the final quality of the data. Handling
and pretreatment of the samples is also discussed. Several analytical methods can be
used for the determination of organotin compounds. Critical steps, such as extraction
and derivatization of the determinants, are discussed, followed by descriptions of the
analytical detection techniques. Emphasis is placed on analytical quality control and
quality assurance.
organotins; marine biota10.17895/ices.pub.5072MCWG
TextE. Monteyne; J. Strand; K. Vorkamp; P. Bersuder; T. Bolam; M. Giltrap; E. McGovern2707-6997978-87-7482-299-8
2010TimesDetermination of perfluoroalkyl compounds in water, sediment, and biota
9/30/2020 12:04 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
This document provides advice on the analysis of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs)
in samples of water, sediment, and biota. The analysis of PFCs in these matrices
generally includes extraction with organic solvents, clean‐up, and liquid
chromatography (LC) with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. This document
provides an overview of environmentally relevant PFCs and information on the
currently applied techniques for the analysis of these PFCs, including sampling,
pretreatment, extraction, clean‐up, instrumental analysis, quantification and quality
assurance, and quality control.
perfluoroalkyl compounds; water; sediment; biota10.17895/ices.pub.5073WGMS
TextL. Ahrens; K. Vorkamp; P. Lepom; P. Bersuder; N. Theobald; R. Ebinghaus; R. Bossi; J. L. Barber; E. McGovern2707-6997978-87-7482-300-1
2012TimesDetermination of alkylphenol metabolites in fish bile using solid phase analytical derivatizantion (SPAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in electron ionization mode (GC-EI-MS)
9/30/2020 12:04 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
This document provides advice on the analysis of alkylphenol (AP) metabolites in
fish bile. APs are released to aquatic environments from many different sources
related to human activities, such as offshore oil production. The method for
determination of APs includes enzymatic deconjugation of fish bile followed by
solid‐phase analytical derivatization (SPAD) with bis(trimethylsilyl)‐
trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). The derivatized APs are separated, then quantified
using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in the electron ionization mode (GC–
EI–MS). Quality control measures should be implemented to ensure good
performance of the method. This GC–EI–MS method allows for a selective and
sensitive analytical detection of APs in fish bile.
alkylphenol metabolites; fish bile; solid phase analytical derivatizantion; SPAD; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in electron ionization mode; GC-EI-MS10.17895/ices.pub.5074N/A
TextG. Jonsson; A. Nævdal; J. Beyer2707-6997978-87-7482-301-8
2012TimesDetermination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in biota and sediment
9/30/2020 12:17 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
Polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants regulated by the
Stockholm Convention of Persistent Organic Pollutants. Being hydrophobic and
lipophilic, these compounds accumulate in the marine environment in sediments and
lipid‐rich tissue of marine organisms, making these matrices preferred media for
environmental monitoring. This document focuses on the analysis of PCDD/Fs and
dioxin‐like PCBs (i.e. non‐ortho and mono‐ortho PCBs), which have a similar planar
molecular structure to PCDD/Fs and, therefore, exhibit similar toxic effects. Because
concentrations in the environment are low and common analytical methods result in
co‐extractions of a large variety of potentially interfering compounds, analytical
procedures are complex. This document includes comments and advice on sampling
and sample pretreatment steps, suitable extraction and clean‐up procedures as well
as preconcentration methods. It highlights the importance of extract clean‐up and the
risk of contamination. Furthermore, suitable methods for instrumental analysis are
discussed for gas chromatographic separation, compound identification, and
quantification and detection methods. Although high‐resolution mass spectrometry
often is the method of choice, low‐resolution mass spectrometry can also provide
sufficiently sensitive analyses, in particular for screening purposes. In this context,
bioassays can also play a role, reflecting a cumulative toxicity rather than
concentrations of individual congeners. The paper also discusses general aspects of
good laboratory practice, quality assurance/quality control, and laboratory safety.
polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins; polychlorinated dibenzofurans; biota; sediment10.17895/ices.pub.5075MCWG
TextK. Vorkamp; P. Roose; P. Bersudar; L. Webster; P. Lepom; C. Munschy; R. Bossi; J. Tronczynski; J. de Boer2707-6997978-87-7482-302-5
2012TimesBiological effects of contamination: Paracentrotu lividus sea urchin embryo test with marine sediment elutriates
9/30/2020 12:17 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
This ICES Techniques in Marine Environmental Sciences describes a sediment elutriate
bioassay using embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, a species widely
distributed in both Atlantic and European Mediterranean waters. The proposed
method is directly applicable to other echinoid species used in ecotoxicology
worldwide, such as the Strongylocentrotus and Arbacia genus. The bioassay endpoint
is a quantitative, observer‐independent, automatically readable response. Statistical
methods and assessment criteria to classify sediment samples according to their
biological quality status are also included, consistent with the demands of the
European Water Framework Directive.
contaminants; sea urchin; embryo; marine sediment10.17895/ices.pub.5076WGBEC
TextR. Beiras; I. Durán; J. Bellas; P. Sánches-Marín2707-6997978-87-7482-303-2
2012TimesGuidelines for passive sampling of hydrophobic contaminants in water using silicon rubber samplers
9/30/2020 12:19 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
This ICES Techniques in Marine Environmental Sciences provides advice on the use of
silicone rubber passive samplers for the determination of freely dissolved non‐polar
contaminants in seawater. The level of detail offered may be helpful to first‐time
users of passive samplers, who wish to implement passive sampling methods in their
monitoring programmes, and to more experienced users to review their current
methods. The aspects covered by these guidelines include pre‐extraction, spiking
with performance reference compounds, deployment, retrieval, extraction, clean‐up,
chemical analysis, and calculation of aqueous concentrations.
passive sampling; hydrophobic contaminants; water; silicon rubber samplers10.17895/ices.pub.5077N/A
TextF. Smedes; K. Booij2707-6997978-87-7482-304-9
2013TimesDetermination of polychlorianted biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment and biota
9/30/2020 12:21 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants regulated by the Stockholm Convention of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), and are included on the OSPAR List of Chemicals for Priority Action due to their persistence, potential to bioaccumulate, and toxicity. Analysis of the ICES-7 PCBs (CB28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180), in sediment and biota, is a mandatory requirement of the OSPAR Co-ordinated Environmental Monitoring Programme (CEMP). Three of the four non-ortho (CB77, 126 and 169) are classed as pre-CEMP determinands at the time of publication, and analysis in biota is recommended but on a voluntary basis.
This document provides advice on the analysis of PCBs in biota and sediment, including non-ortho PCBs. The determination of PCBs in sediment and biota generally involves extraction with organic solvents, clean-up, and gas chromatographic separation with electron capture detection or mass spectrometry. Due to the low concentrations of non-ortho substituted PCBs compared to those of other PCBs, their determination may require an additional separation step.
All stages of the procedure are susceptible to insufficient recovery and/or contamination. Therefore, quality control procedures are important in order to check method performance. These guidelines have been prepared by members of the ICES Marine Chemistry Working Group (MCWG) and the Working Group on Marine Sediment (WGMS) and are intended to encourage and assist analytical chemists to reconsider their methods and to improve their procedures and/or the associated quality control measures where necessary.
Keywords: polychlorinated biphenyls, sediment, biota, storage, extraction, clean-up, calibration, gas chromatography, electron capture detection, mass spectrometry.
polychlorianted biphenyls; PCBs; sediment bioassay; biota10.17895/ices.pub.5078MCWG
TextL. Webster; L. Roose; P. Bersuder; m. Kotterman; M. Haarich; K. Vorkamp2707-6997978-87-7482-305-6
2001TimesBiological effects of contaminants: Corophium sp. sediment bioassay and toxicity test
6/12/2019 11:25 AMFfion Bell
contaminants; sediment bioassay; toxicity10.17895/ices.pub.5079N/A
TextB. D. Roddie; J. E. Thain
2001TimesChlorophyll a: Determination by spectroscopic methods
6/12/2019 11:25 AMFfion Bell
chlorophyll a; determination methods; spectroscopy10.17895/ices.pub.5080N/A
TextA. Aminot; F. Rey
2002TimesBiological effects of contaminants: Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques for the measurement of marine fish vitellogenins
9/30/2020 12:23 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
This document describes immunochemical methods to quantify the egg-yolk precursor protein
vitellogenin in fish plasma. Vitellogenin is normally produced by the liver of mature female fish
in response to 17β-oestradiol (E2) in the blood. If male or reproductively immature fish are
exposed to oestrogenic substances, either in the water or the diet, their livers will also be
stimulated to produce vitellogenin. Concentrations of vitellogenin in the plasma of induced and
uninduced fish can differ by a factor of between 106 and 107. This makes vitellogenin induction
in male and immature fish a very good biomarker for environmental oestrogens. All necessary
steps in the development of both RIA (radioimmunoassay) and ELISA (enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay) are described, as are special precautions that need to be considered
during the analysis of this protein.
contaminants; radioimmunoassay; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; RIA; ELISA; marine fish; vitellogenins10.17895/ices.pub.5081N/A
TextA. P. Scott; K. Hylland2707-6997978-87-7482-251-6
2013TimesOyster embryo-larval bioassay (revised)
9/30/2020 12:22 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
The description of the oyster (Crassostrea gigas) embryo bioassay was initially published in the ICES TIMES series in 1991 (No.11). At the time, the bioassay was used in the United Kingdom for measuring water quality in relation to coastal waters which received anthropogenic discharges. Subsequently it was applied to measure general water quality and was taken up by the OSPAR Joint Assessment Monitoring Plan (JAMP) as a technique for measuring general biological effects in water, sediment elutriates, and pore water, and is used in several countries across the OSPAR Maritime Area.
The organism response used in the bioassay is the ability of early stage embryos to develop normally and reach the “D-shaped” larval stage (at which the paired hinged shells can be seen) within 24 hours. Although the exposure time is short, it encompasses a period of intense cellular activity during which the impairment of a number of critical physiological and biochemical processes may result in poor and abnormal growth and development.
The method described here is a complete revision of the original text, and includes a more comprehensive description of the methodology, how it can be applied for testing water quality for monitoring purposes, and for direct toxicity assessment or where a dilution series may need testing (e.g. extracts from passive samplers / sediment elutriates etc). Furthermore, there is additional information on the treatment and work up of results and analytical quality control.
oyster; embryo; larval; bioassay10.17895/ices.pub.5082N/A
TextD. Leverett; J. Thain2707-6997978-87-7482-307-0
2013TimesProtocol for measuring dioxin-like activity in environmental samples using in vitro reporter gene DR-Luc assays
9/30/2020 12:23 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
Guidelines are given for the quantification of the dioxin-like activities of contaminants in sediment, biota and water samples using the DR-Luc reporter gene bioassay. Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds demonstrate high affinity binding to the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR). Ah-R is a ligand-activated transcription factor and mediates most, if not all, of the toxic responses of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). The DR-Luc bioassay, or DR-CALUX® (Dioxin Response Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression), utilizes a recombinant rat hepatoma H4IIE cell line with a stably integrated AhR-responsive luciferase reporter gene. Exposure of this bioassay to extracts containing dioxin-like compounds induces the enzyme luciferase in a time, dose, and chemical specific manner. Cells are cultured in the laboratory and transferred to 96-well plates. Luciferase activity is determined by measuring the light emitted, which is directly proportional to the amount of dioxin-like compounds within the test extract. Hence the DR-Luc assay is a rapid, extremely sensitive and cost-effective tool for screening sediment, biota, and water extracts for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. The DR-Luc assay is recommended in the OSPAR JAMP guidelines as a specific biological effect method for monitoring of PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and furans, and also as a suitable biological effect method for general biological effect monitoring. In addition, DR-Luc analysis has proven to be a very powerful tool in emission source monitoring and remediation efforts as it allows for the identification and control of the toxic compounds concerned. Critical steps, such as the extraction of sediment or biota samples and subsequent clean-up of the extracts are discussed, followed by descriptions of the DR-Luc detection technique. Emphasis is placed on analytical quality control and quality assurance.
dioxin-like activity; measurement; samples; in vitro reporter gene DR-Luc assays10.17895/ices.pub.5083WGBEC
TextC. A. Schipper; P. E. G. Leonards; H. J. C. Klamer; K. V. Thomas; A. D. Vethaak2707-6997978-87-7482-131-1
2015TimesLysosomal membrane stability in mussels
9/30/2020 12:24 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
In 2012, the ICES Study Group on Integrated Monitoring of Chemicals and their Effects
provided a framework for integrated monitoring to the OSLO-Paris Commission.
UNEP/MAP and HELCOM expert groups have also developed guidelines on
integrated monitoring of chemicals and their effects for the Mediterranean and Baltic
Sea. This document provides the technical information for one of the biological effects
measurements, the lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), which is a part of the above
mentioned integrated monitoring approaches. Lysosomes are cytoplasmic, single
membrane organelles whose condition is sensitive to stress whether it be due to environmental
conditions or exposure to a wide array of contaminants. Two different
methodologies have been developed to assess LMS in mussels: an enzyme cytochemical
method using cryostatic sections of digestive gland tissue, and an in vivo cytochemical
method (using haemolymph cells). In this document, different aspects of
the operational procedures have been standardized and harmonized, with particular
reference to the in vivo cytochemical method. New graphical material has been added
to clarify criteria of interpretation and new external quality assurance programmes
for measurements of lysosomal membrane stability have been proposed. Background
(BAC) and environmental (EAC) assessment criteria to assess the LMS data are provided.
Additionally, a new scoring procedure to enhance the sensitivity of the LMS
measurements using the in vivo assay is provided.
lysosomal membrane stability; mussel10.17895/ices.pub.5084WGBEC
TextC. Martínez-Gómez; J. Bignell; D. Lowe2707-6997978-87-7482-166-3
2016TimesDetermination of CYP1A-dependent mono-oxygenase activity in dab by fluorimetric measurement of EROD activity in S9 or microsomal liver fractions
9/30/2020 12:24 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
This paper describes a method for the determination of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)
in fish liver fractions by the measurement of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD)
activity. The proposed method is by fluorescent assay of resorufin using internal standardization.
The method is specifically for measurements made in dab (Limanda limanda
L.), but is suitable for adaptation to other species. The principle of the method, the
sampling requirements, the assay procedures and the reporting of the results are described.
Sources of error and quality control procedures are also specified. The document
is a modification of a 1998 publication to allow measurement of EROD activity
from both S9 and microsomal fractions to be undertaken.
CYP1A-dependent mono-oxygenase activity; Dab; fluorimetric measurement of EROD activity; ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase; S9; liver10.17895/ices.pub.5085WGBEC
TextR. Stagg; A. McIntosh; M. J. Gubbins2707-6997978-87-7482-168-7
2016TimesBiological effects of contaminants: Assessing DNA damage in marine species through single-cell alkeline gel electrophoresis (comet) assay
9/30/2020 12:26 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or comet) assay allows quantification of DNA
damage in individual cells and is an ideal tool for use within biological monitoring
programmes. Comet assay can be used on a range of cell types including somatic, reproductive
(gametes) or circulatory cells in many different species including both marine
bivalves and flatfish. The assay can be employed with simple equipment available
in most laboratories, is sensitive to environmentally relevant levels of DNA damage
(Frenzilli and Lyons, 2009), accurately demonstrates a linear dose response to exposure
(Collins et al., 1996), and can be adapted for use on most nucleated cell types. This document
concentrates on the simplest and most repeatable method of comet assay in circulatory
cells of species commonly used in marine biomonitoring programmes both
for chemical and biological effects. This manuscript describes standardized assay procedures
and recommends the minimum level of information required when reporting
comet assay results.
contaminants; DNA damage; single-cell alkeline gel electrophoresis (comet) assay10.17895/ices.pub.5086WGBEC
TextT. P. Bean; F. Akcha2707-6997978-87-7482-186-1
2019TimesBiological effects of contaminations: Stress on stress (SoS) response in mussels
9/30/2020 12:28 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
It is well known that the physiological status of marine organisms changes when they
are exposed to contaminants (Bayne et al., 1986; De Zwaan et al., 1995; Viarengo et al.,
1995). One consequence is that the organism is less able to tolerate the natural fluctuations
of environmental factors. Mussels can tolerate aerial exposure for many days but,
under sustained aerial exposure, they will eventually die. The ability of mussels to keep
valves closed and to resist aerial exposure relates to the amount of adenosine triphosphate
(ATP) available to fuel the adductor muscle (De Zwaan and Mathiew, 1992). In
mussels from contaminated sites, part of the metabolic energy is spent on detoxification
processes, thus depleting the ATP needed for other physiological functions. The
reduction of survival in air, or stress on stress (SoS) biomarker, is a simple and lowcost
whole organism response that can show pollutant induced alterations in the organism’s
physiology that renders the animal more sensitive to further environmental
Different studies have demonstrated the applicability of aerial survival as an early
warning indicator of contaminant-induced stress. The effects of xenobiotics, including
heavy metals, organometals, and organics, as well as contaminated field sediments, on
invertebrate survival in air have been demonstrated (De Zwaan et al., 1996). Bivalve
molluscs have been used in most studies, with marine mussels (Mytilus sp.) being the
most common organism (Brooks et al., 2018; Eertman et al., 1995; Smaal et al., 1991;
Veldhuizen-Tsoerkan et al., 1991; Thomas et al., 1999; Petrovic et al., 2004; Viarengo et
al., 1995; Pampanin et al., 2005; Labarta et al., 2005; Gorbi et al., 2008; Marcheselli et al.,
2011). Laboratory studies have been conducted to establish the relationships between
toxicant concentrations in tissue and SoS. For example, it was demonstrated that shortterm
exposure to sublethal concentrations (less than μM) of pollutants such as Cu2+,
DMBA (9, 10-dimethyl 1, 2 benzanthracene), and Aroclor 1254 significantly reduced
the capacity of mussels to survive in air (Viarengo et al., 1995). This effect was markedly
dose-dependent, and was strongly increased by pollutant mixtures, such as Cd and
PCB 126 (Viarengo et al., 1995; Eertman et al., 1996). Clams exposed to high concentrations
of 4-nonylphenol (3 mg NP l−1) were also found to have a significant decreased
ability to survive in air (Matozzo et al., 2003). A marked decrease in tolerance to aerial
exposure has also been reported in mussels exposed to high concentrations of the antifouling
biocide zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) (Marcheselli et al., 2011). Aerial exposure tolerance,
as a monitoring tool, has been reported as better able to reflect smaller differences
between mussels from sewage outfall sites and mussels from reference sites than other
physiological measurements, such as byssal thread production (Moles and Hale, 2003).
Survival in air measurements also appear to be a sensitive and statistically significant
parameter for monitoring the effect of long-term exposure to crude oil (Thomas et al.,
contaminants; stress on stress; SoS; mussel10.17895/ices.pub.4702N/A
TextJ. Thain; B. Fernández; C. Martínez-Gómez2707-6997978-87-7482-226-4
2017TimesSupporting variables for biological effects measurements in fish and blue mussels
9/30/2020 12:29 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
Biological effects measurements in fish and blue mussel are fundamental in marine
environmental monitoring. Nevertheless, currently used biomarkers may be confounded
by basic physiological phenomena, such as growth, reproduction, and feeding,
as well as thereby associated physiological variation. Here, we present a number
of supporting variables, which are essential to measure in order to obtain reliable biological
effects data, facilitate their interpretation, and make valid comparisons. For fish,
these variables include: body weight, body length, condition, gonad maturation status,
various somatic indices, age, and growth. For blue mussels, these variables include:
volume, flesh weight, shell weight, and condition. Also, grossly visible anomalies, lesions,
and parasites should be recorded for both fish and blue mussels. General confounding
factors and their effects are described, as well as recommendations for how
to handle them.
biological effects measurement; fish; blue mussels10.17895/ices.pub.2903WGPDMO
TextT. Hansson; J. Thain; C. Martínez-Gómez; K. Hylland; M. Gubbins; L. Balk2707-6997978-87-7482-200-4
2017TimesGuidelines for determining polymer-water and polymer-polymer partition coefficients of organic compounds
9/30/2020 12:29 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
Methods for the experimental determination of polymer-water partition coefficients
(Kpw) and polymer-polymer partition coefficients (Kp1p2) are reviewed with the aim to
improve the quality of passive sampling-based monitoring of organic compounds.
Mechanistic models are used for optimizing the experimental design of Kpw
measurements with respect to scaling (polymer mass, water volume, concentration
levels) and equilibration times. It is shown that the polymer-water phase ratio has a
profound effect on the rate of equilibrium attainment. Experimental artefacts are
discussed and quality control measures for quantifying uncertainties in the reported
Kpw values are suggested. Examples of experimental design modelling are provided.
Experimental methods for determining Kp1p2 are not fully developed yet and several
suggestions for the further development of Kp1p2 measurements are included. It is
expected that this guideline will be useful for investigators who seek to improve their
experimental procedures for determining polymer-water and polymer-polymer
partition coefficients, or to assess the quality of literature values of these partition
polymer-polymer; polymer-water; partition coefficients; organic compounds10.17895/ices.pub.3285MCWG
TextK. Booij; F. Smedes; I. J. Allan2707-6997978-87-7482-203-5
2019TimesGuidelines for the use of Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films for measuring metal fluxes in sedimentHAPISG
9/30/2020 12:30 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
Increasing public and regulatory concern over the chemical and ecological status of
water bodies has led to a higher demand for performing extensive water quality assessments.
However, regulatory frameworks often only focus on monitoring contaminants
in the water column, and scarce regulatory attention has so far been dedicated to
assessing sediment quality. Contaminants accumulated in the sediment may be released
into the overlying water, or reach higher trophic levels due to transfer across the
aquatic food chain. Thus, quality assessments of water bodies should include an evaluation
of the occurrence of contaminants in sediments and the associated ecological
During the last decades, efforts have been made to integrate sediment quality assessments
into regulatory frameworks. As a consequence, robust and reliable methodologies
for assessing sediment quality are now required. Among the existing methods for
assessing metal contamination in sediments, the Diffusive Gradients in Thin films
(DGT) technique has shown potential, due to its ability to measure metal fluxes from
the pore water and labile sediment phases. Laboratory and field studies indicate that
the DGT-labile metal flux provides robust predictions of metal bioaccumulation and
toxicity to benthic organisms (Roulier et al. 2008; Dabrin et al. 2012; Simpson et al. 2012;
Amato et al. 2014, 2015, 2016, 2018; He et al. 2018). DGT could thus be a useful tool for
improving sediment quality assessments
contaminants; sediment; DGT; metal fluxes; water quality10.17895/ices.pub.5463WGMS
TextAmato, E.D.; Bolam, T.; and Belzunce-Segarra, M.J.2707-6997978-87-7482-241-7
2020TimesProtocol for the verification of ballast water compliance monitoring devicesHAPISG
9/30/2020 12:31 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
Concerns regarding the impacts of non-native species due to their transport and release in ship ballast water have resulted in agreements and regulatory requirements being implemented around the world (e.g. International Maritime Organization [IMO] Ballast Water Management Convention [BWMC], 2004; US Coast Guard [USCG], 2012; California State Lands Commission [CSLC], 2018). Consequently, effective and reliable monitoring for ship compliance with ballast water discharge standards is now critical to achieve the regulatory goal of minimizing the risk of invasive species introductions. A variety of ballast water compliance monitoring devices (CMDs) have been developed. This includes various sensors, instruments, kits, methods, and assays that have been designed to assess compliance with ballast water discharge standards and requirements. Additionally, several novel CMD approaches are also currently being explored. However, rigorous, transparent and standardized verification testing is needed for these devices to be adopted and implemented globally, by multiple administrations (i.e. countries, governments, or jurisdictions) to enforce compliance monitoring. Otherwise, CMD performance, data quality, and uncertainties will remain unknown. To address this need, this protocol has been developed by a subgroup of the ICES/Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC)/IMO Working Group on Ballast and other Ship Vectors (WGBOSV) to serve as a standardized framework for the verification testing of CMDs.
ballast water; non-native; compliance monitoring device; monitoring10.17895/ices.pub.5465WGBOSV
TextTamburri, M.N., Bailey, S.A., Everett, R.A., First, M.R., Gollasch, S., Outinen, O., and Drake, L.A.2707-6997978-87-7482-250-9