​​​
  
  
PublicationYear
  
PublicationType
  
  
PublicationCommittee
  
  
  
  
PublicationECORegion
  
PublicationSpecies
  
Abstract
Keywords
  
  
  
ICES Book
  
Advice Statement
ICES Ecoregions
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
Folder: crr135
  
2/4/2013 9:34 AMNasrullah Iqbal
Folder: marineworld
  
1/1/1970 1:00 AMNasrullah Iqbal
Folder: SERIES B, 1970
  
SERIES B, 1970
6/6/2017 8:59 AMHenrik Larsen
Folder: SERIES B, 1971
  
SERIES B, 1971
6/6/2017 9:00 AMHenrik Larsen
Folder: Crr106
  
4/30/2019 10:34 AMHenrik Larsen
guide209.htm
  
ICES Cooperative Research Report No. 209 Additional guidance
2/11/2013 11:50 AMNasrullah Iqbal
CRR42.pdf
  
1974CRRResearch Programmes for investigations of the Baltic as a natural resource with special reference to pollution problems
42
11/11/2020 5:32 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
The aim of this report is to give the general background for the conditions in the Baltic, to define and formulate research problems related to the pollution situation, and to identify the most urgently needed studies.
Baltic Sea; pollution; research programmes10.17895/ices.pub.5309N/A
Baltic Sea EcoregionTextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-521-0
CRR70.pdf
  
1977CRRReport on the present research activities in the field of mariculture in ICES member countries
70
11/11/2020 4:03 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
Report on the present research activities in the field of mariculture in ICES member countries. Edited by Tiews, K.
10.17895/ices.pub.4527WGAGFM
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-513-5
CRR109.pdf
  
1981CRRGuide to experimental procedure in fishing gear research and development
109
11/18/2020 11:51 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This report has been prepared by members of the ICES Data Collection and Gear Engineering Working Groups.

10.17895/ices.pub.4528N/A
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-514-2
CRR135.pdf
  
1986CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Marine Pollution 1985
135
11/18/2020 12:42 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
Progress made in respect to work requested by the Oslo and Paris Commissions and the Helsinki Commission. It summarizes activities within ICES on trend monitoring in biological tissues and considerable progress.
10.17895/ices.pub.4529MCWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-526-5
CRR164.pdf
  
1989CRRData base report of the stomach sampling project 1981
164
11/18/2020 1:06 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
Multispecies assessment in the North Sea ecosystem. Theory of exploited fish population dynamics. This project was aimed at quantitative answers to the question 'Who eats who?' among the exploited fish species in the North Sea. Edited by Niels Daan.
10.17895/ices.pub.4533WGSAM
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-527-2
CRR343.pdf
  
2018CRRFifty years of marine tag recoveries from Atlantic salmon
343
10/7/2020 10:13 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This CRR compiles information from four workshops and key results from the relevant papers presented at the ICES/NASCO salmon symposium to assess the distribution of the tagged fish in space and time.
wild salmon; atlantic salmon; tagging; Fisheries10.17895/ices.pub.4542WGNAS
TextÓ Maoiléidigh, N., White, J., Hansen, L. P., Jacobsen, J. A., Potter, T., Russell, I., Reddin, D., and Sheehan, T.1017-6195978-87-7482-219-6
CRR161.pdf
  
1989CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on fishery management, 1988
161
11/18/2020 1:19 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
In 1982, it was decided to change the time table for the ACFM meetings and make two meetings out of one on a yearly basis.
10.17895/ices.pub.4598MGWG
TextICES Cooperative Research report1017-6195978-87-7482-528-9
CRR344.pdf
  
2018CRRAcoustic target classification
344
11/24/2020 10:22 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The first ICES CRR to detail the latest multifrequency and wideband methods for acoustic target classification.
Acoustic data; ecosystem monitoring; Fisheries; acoustic target10.17895/ices.pub.4567WGFAST
TextKorneliussen, R. (Ed.)1017-6195978-87-7482-218-9
CRR 332.pdf
  
2018CRRPelagic survey series for sardine and anchovy in ICES subareas 8 and 9 – Towards an ecosystem approach
332
11/24/2020 10:24 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Acoustic and egg surveys in the southwestern waters of Europe.
anchovy; sardine; pelagic10.17895/ices.pub.4599WGACEGG
TextMassé, J., Uriarte, A., Manuel Angélico, M., and Carrera, P. (Eds.)1017-6195978‐87‐7482‐195‐3
CRR 182.pdf
  
1992CRREffects of extraction of marine sediments on fisheries
182
11/19/2020 10:09 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Cooperative research undertaken from 1986-90 by ICES WG on the "effects of extraction of marine sediments on fisheries" (Marine environmental quality committee). Previously (1972-79) known as "effects on fisheries of marine sand and gravel extraction.
10.17895/ices.pub.4605WGEXT
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-529-6
CRR 187.pdf
  
1992CRRAcoustic survey design and analysis procedure: a comprehensive review of current practice
187
11/19/2020 10:26 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Acoustic surveys provide estimates of stock abundance and its precision, maps of geographical distribution and biological information such as stock age and maturity structure.
10.17895/ices.pub.4606WGFAST
TextE. John Simmonds, Neal J. Williamson, François Gerlotto and Asgeir Aglen1017-6195978-87-7482-530-2
CRR 191.pdf
  
1993CRRReports of the working group on "methods of fish stock assessments"
191
11/19/2020 10:33 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Three different reports on methods of fish stock assessment put together:  Copenhaguen, 1987; Reykjavik, 1988; Nantes, 1989
10.17895/ices.pub.4607WGMG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-531-9
CRR 194.pdf
  
1993CRRAtlas of North Sea fishes - Based on bottom-trawl survey data for the years 1985-1987
194
11/19/2020 10:47 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The main objective is to give an overview of the data available from surveys and at the same time provide knowledge of the spatial distribution. In addition, it will provide a baseline which will reveal secondary effects or changes in the fauna.
10.17895/ices.pub.4622N/A
TextRuud J. Knijn; Trevor W. Boon; Henk J. L. Heessen and John R. G. Hislop1017-6195978-87-7482-532-6
CRR 215.pdf
  
1996CRRManual of methods of measuring the selectivity of towed fishing gears
215
11/19/2020 10:49 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Update of the manual to fisheries scientists and technologists describing the methods for measuring the selectivity of most types of fishing gear: trawl, Danish seines, gill nets and hooks.
10.17895/ices.pub.4628WGFTFB
TextD. A. Wileman, DIFTA, Hirtshals, Denmark; R.S.T. Ferro, SOAEFD Marine Laboratory, Aberdeen, Scotland; R. Fonteyne, Rijksstation voor Zeevisserji, Oostende, Belgium; R. B. Millar, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zeland1017-6195978-87-7482-534-0
CRR 216.pdf
  
1996CRRSeabird/Fish interactions, with particular reference to seabirds in the North Sea
216
11/19/2020 11:00 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Evaluation of identified interactions between seabirds and fish, and between seabirds and shellfish; estimates of seabird consumption of prey, by prey species; and analysis of prey consumption by examining the size- or year classes of prey taken.
10.17895/ices.pub.4624HAWG
TextGeorge l. Hunt, Jr., Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, USA & Robert W. Furness, Applied Ornithology Unit, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK1017-6195978-87-7482-535-7
CRR 219.pdf
  
1997CRRDatabase report of the stomach sampling project 1991
219
11/19/2020 11:06 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This report adheres to the general layout of the Database report of the Stomach Sampling project 1981 (Daan (ed.)1989-ICES CRR164) With the object of making it relatively easy to compare the results of these two major stomach sampling projects.
10.17895/ices.pub.4626WGSAM
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-536-4
CRR 220.pdf
  
1997CRRGuide to the identification of North Sea fish using Premaxillae and Vertebrae
220
10/28/2020 1:32 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
This guide is an attempt to develop novel techniques and methods for dietary analysis. The use of skeletal elements/remains are considered a potential source of information to identify prey.
10.17895/ices.pub.4627N/A
TextJ. Watt; G. .J. Pierce; P. R. Boyle1017-6195978-87-7482-447-3
CRR 222.pdf
  
1997CRRReport of the ICES ACME (Advisory Committee on the marine environment) 1997
222
11/19/2020 11:39 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This report contents responses from ACME, ICES to the requests made at the Oslo, Paris and Helsinki Commissions, and other topics of potential interest for which ACME had not been asked directly but relevant as per ACME discrection.
10.17895/ices.pub.4629BEWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-537-1
CRR 227.PDF
  
1999CRRTenth dialogue meeting
227
11/19/2020 11:53 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Direct exchange of views between professionals from the fish production sector; fisheries managers, and fisheries scientists. Organized by the Spanish Institute of Oceanography and co-sponsored by ICES and the European Commission.
10.17895/ices.pub.4630WGBIE
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-538-8
CRR 228.PDF
  
1999CRRReport of the 11th ICES dialogue meeting on "The relationship between scientific advice and fisheries management"ACFM
228
11/24/2020 11:25 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
These meeting/forum serves as a useful mechanism for forthright exchanges of views on the challenges and difficulties as well as the responsibilities of the different sectors involved in fisheries. Nantes, France 1999
10.17895/ices.pub.4631WGECO
Text1017-6195978-87-7482-539-5
CRR 346.pdf
  
2019CRRHandbook of fish age estimation protocols and validation methodsEOSG
346
10/7/2020 9:53 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Assessment of individual age through the use of calcified structures (scales, otoliths,
opercular bones, fin rays, etc.) has been proven to be very useful in assessing the status
of any fish stock. According to Panfili et al. (2002), data on age and growth of fish are
essential for understanding vital traits of species and populations (e.g. lifespan, age at
recruitment, age at sexual maturity, reproduction periods, migrations, mortality) and
the study of population demographic structure and its dynamics (e.g. age-based stock
assessment). The age profile of a fish stock can be indicative of its general “health”, as
one will expect to see evidence of a broad range of ages in a healthy population. A lack
of young fish may indicate recruitment failure, which will have repercussions in future
years, while a lack of older fish can signal overexploitation of the stock. Fisheries scientists
are especially concerned with the dynamics of exploited populations, with the
view to providing advice about the sustainable harvesting of the resource. In the ICES
Area, this task is generally focused on providing a quantitative assessment and forecast
on a stock, with age data at its core. Hilborn and Walters (1992) pointed out that the
“aim of such studies is not only to assess the state of stocks and fisheries relative to
historical states, biological reference points or management targets, but also to evaluate
the consequences for both fish stocks and fishermen, of alternative management scenarios.”
Therefore, it is clear that reliable age–length data are important for the management
and sustainable exploitation of fish stocks. The need for reliable data is especially
acute in times when stock levels are low and errors in predictions can have devastating
effects on the resources.
fish; age; age validation10.17895/ices.pub.5221WGBIOP
TextVitale, F.; Worsøe Clausen, L.; and Ní Chonchúir, G. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-223-3
CRR04.pdf
  
1964CRRThe North Sea Herring: being the report of the North Sea Working Group to the Herring Committee of ICESHerring Committee
4
11/18/2020 12:31 PMSøren Killerup LarsenNorth SeaHerring
Since 1955, catches of herring in the Southern Bight of the North Sea have declined. Consequently, the biology of the North Sea herring stocks has been examined thoroughly to find the causes of decline.
herring; North Sea10.17895/ices.pub.5308HAWG
TextHerring CommitteeICES1017-6195978-87-7482-525-8
CRR173_2.pdf
  
1991CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1990. Part 2.ACFM
173
11/24/2020 9:58 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Nominal catches in the North Sea area (Sub-area IV and Division IlIa), the Norwegian Sea and
off the Faroes (Divisions IIa and Vb), the Western area (Sub-areas VI and VII and Divisions
Vllla,b,d,e) and the Southern area (Division Vlllc and Sub-area IX) are given in Tables
6.1.1-6.1.4.
These tables do not give actual catches by area for 1969 due to misreporting. Estimates of
quarterly catch of mackerel by division or sub-area in 1969 are given in Table 6.1.5.
Two stock units - North Sea and Western - are considered. The stocks mix during the second
half of the year, particularly in the northern North Sea (Division IVa), but the proportion
of mackerel from the North Sea stock in the catches is very small due to the inferior size
of this stock in relation to the Western stock.
As for previous years, it has not been possible to split the 1969 catches by stock. All
mackerel caught in Sub-areas II, IV, VI, VII and Divisions IlIa, Vb, Vllla,b were allocated
to the Western stock. This includes an estimated quantity of about 3,000 t North Sea
mackerel which is considered insignificant in relation to a total catch of 567,000 t assessed
as Western stock mackerel.
Data on actual, quarterly distribution of the mackerel fisheries in 1969 are available. Compared
to 1966, the distribution was, as in 1967, more southerly during the July-October
period, illustrating previously observed year-to-year variations in distribution and migration.
Data relating to the fisheries for mackerel in the Southern area (Divisions Vlllc and IXa)
are now being collected and analyzed, but are yet insufficient for any analytical assessment.
Fisheries; fishery management10.17895/ices.pub.5311MGWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-480-0
CRR173_1.pdf
  
1991CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1990. Part 1.ACFM
173
11/24/2020 9:57 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This Cooperative Research Report (Parts 1 and 2) contains the reports of the Advisory Committee
on Fishery Management in 1990.
After the May meeting, ICES issued the complete report to the International Baltic Sea
Fishery Commission (IBSFC), Part I of the report to the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission
(NEAFC), and the report to the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization
(NASCO). The second part of the report to the NEAFC was issued after the November meeting.
In order to distribute the advice to managers as fast as possible, the reports were issued
in sections and distributed immediately after they had been completed.
The two reports to NEAFC have been edited into one report, placing the stocks in logical sequence
and including all advice on each stock in one place.
The report to NEAFC is followed by the reports to IBSFC and NASCO.
Fisheries; fishery management10.17895/ices.pub.5310MGWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-481-7
CRR179_1.pdf
  
1992CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1991. Part 1.ACFM
179
11/24/2020 10:00 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This Cooperative Research Report (parts 1 and 2) contains the reports of the Advisory Committee on Fishery
Management in 1991.
After the May meeting, ICES issued the complete Report to the International Baltic Sea Fishery Commission
(IBSFC), Part I of the Report to the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC), and the Report to the
North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCa). The second part of the Report to NEAFC was issued
after the November meeting, together with the Report to the Commission of the European Community on European
Eels and the Report to the Government of Norway on Harp and Hooded Seals. In order to provide the advice to
managers as fast as possible, the reports were issued in sections and distributed immediately after they had been
completed.
The two reports to NEAFC have been edited into one report, placing the stocks in logical sequence and including
all advice on each stock in one place.
The Report to NEAFC is followed by the Reports to mSFC, NASCa, the EC, and Norway.
Fisheries; fishery management10.17895/ices.pub.5312HAWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-476-3
CRR179_2.pdf
  
1992CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1991. Part 2.ACFM
179
11/24/2020 10:00 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
A general review of officially-reported catches in the Baltic is given in Tables 1.1.-1.5. These are the catches
officially reported to ICES by national statistical offices for publication in the ICES Fishery Statistics.
In the assessments, the working groups try to estimate discards and slipped fish, landings which are not officially
reported, and the composition of by-catches. These amounts are included in the estimates of total catch for each
stock and are used in the assessments; thus, they appear in the tables and figures produced by working groups.
These estimates vary considerably between different stocks and fisheries, being negligible in some cases and
constituting important parts of the total removals from other stocks. Further, the catches used by the working
groups are broken down into sub-divisions, whereas the officially-reported figures are reported by the larger
Divisions llIb,c and d.
The trends in Tables 1.1-1.5 may not, therefore, correspond with those on which assessments have been based,
and are presented for information only, without any comment from ACFM.
The 1990 catches listed under the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic refer to
catches taken by vessels from the respective former territories during the whole of 1990, before and after political
union. Thus catches taken by vessels registered in the former German Democratic Republic in the months after
unification are included in the German Democratic Republic figures.
The catch data used in the assessments are given in other tables
Fisheries; fishery management10.17895/ices.pub.5313HAWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-477-0
CRR193_2.pdf
  
1993CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1992. Part 2.ACFM
193
11/24/2020 10:03 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
A general review of officially-reported catches in the Baltic is given in Tables 1.1.-1.5. These are the catches
officially reported to ICES by national statistical offices for publication in the ICES Fishery Statistics.
In the assessments, the working groups try to estimate discards and slipped fish, landings which are not officially
reported, and the composition of by-catches. These amounts are included in the estimates of total catch for each
stock and are used in the assessments; thus, they appear in the tables and figures produced by working groups.
These estimates vary considerably between different stocks and fisheries, being negligible in some cases and
constituting important parts of the total removals from other stocks. Further, the catches used by the working
groups are broken down into sub-divisions, whereas the officially-reported figures are reported by the larger
Divisions IIIb,c and d.
Fisheries; fishery management10.17895/ices.pub.4609WGNAS
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-473-2
CRR193_1.pdf
  
1993CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1992. Part 1.ACFM
193
11/24/2020 10:01 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This Cooperative Research Report (parts 1 and 2) contains the reports of the Advisory Committee on Fishery
Management issued in 1992.
After the May meeting, ICES issued the Report to the International Baltic Sea Fishery Commission (IBSFC),
Part I of the Report to the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC), and the Report to the North
Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCa). The second part of the Report to NEAFC was issued
after the November meeting. In order to provide the advice to managers as fast as possible, the reports were
issued in sections and distributed immediately after they had been completed.
The two reports to NEAFC have been edited into one report, placing the stocks in logical sequence and
including all advice on each stock in one place.
The Report to NEAFC is followed by the Reports to IBSFC and NASCa.
In 1991 ACFM adopted a new form of advice and this was described in the ACFM Report for 1991. All
of the advice provided by ACFM in 1992 was formulated using the new protocols
10.17895/ices.pub.4608WGNAS
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-474-9
CRR195.pdf
  
1993CRRReport of the Workshop on the Applicability of Spatial Statistical Techniques to Acoustic Survey Data
195
11/4/2020 12:06 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
This issue contains the edited Report of a workshop held in Reykjavik in 1991 to consider the applicability
of spatial statistical techniques to acoustic survey data.
Some programs were rerun after the meeting yielding modifications to some of the tables in the report, and
two appendices have been added.
Following the suggestions in this report, a successful workshop was held at Fontainebleau, France in
February, 1992, where participants from the fisheries sciences were introduced to geostatistics
10.17895/ices.pub.5314N/A
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-472-5
CRR196_1.pdf
  
1994CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1993. Part 1.ACFM
196
11/24/2020 10:05 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The assessments presented in this report are carried out using the best catch data available to the working groups
and to ACFM. These data are not necessarily identical with the official statistics but, where appropriate, include
estimates of unreported landings as well as corrections for misallocation of catches by area and species. Despite
considerable effort exerted to this problem, there is no guarantee that all instances of misreporting were discovered.
Often working group catch data are collated on a stock basis rather than an area basis, and so straightforward
comparisons between these figures and the official statistics, which are provided on an area basis, are not
appropriate.
In the assessments, the working groups try to estimate the total catch taken, including slipped catches, discards,
landings which are not officially reported, and the composition of the industrial by-catches. These amounts of
different species, which have to be included in the estimates of what has been taken from a given stock in order
for the assessments to be correct, thus appear in the tables and figures produced by the working groups. These
levels of discards, slipped fish, unreported landings, and industrial by-catches vary considerably between different
stocks and fisheries, being negligible in some cases and constituting important parts of the total removal from other
stocks.
10.17895/ices.pub.5315HAWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-470-1
CRR196_2.pdf
  
1994CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1993. Part 2.ACFM
196
11/24/2020 10:03 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Officially reported catches in the Baltic are given in Tables 1.1.1-1.1.5. These are the catches officially reported
to ICES by national statistical offices for publication in the ICES Fishery Statistics.
In the assessments, the working groups try to estimate discards and slipped fish, landings which are not officially
reported, and the composition of by-catches. These amounts are included in the estimates of total catch for each
stock and are used in the assessments; thus, they appear in the tables and figures produced by working groups.
These estimates vary considerably between different stocks and fisheries, being negligible in some cases and
constituting important parts of the total removals from other stocks. Further, the catches· used by the working
groups are broken down into sub-divisions, whereas the officially-reported figures are reported by the larger
Divisions IIIb,c, and d.
10.17895/ices.pub.5316HAWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-471-8
CRR209.pdf
  
1995CRRUnderwater noise of research vessels: review and recommendations
209
11/24/2020 10:11 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Study Group on Research Vessel Noise. Edited by R. B. Mitson (Acoustec, UK).
10.17895/ices.pub.5317WGFAST
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-463-3
CRR210_1.pdf
  
1995CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1994. Part 1.ACFM
210
11/24/2020 10:11 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This Cooperative Research Report (Parts 1 and 2) contains the Report of the Advisory Committee on
Fishery Management (ACFM) prepared and issued in 1994. The Report was prepared in the form of
separate reports to the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC), the International Baltic Sea
Fishery Commission (IBSFC), the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCO) and the
European Commission (EC).
Shortly after the May meeting of ACFM, ICES issued the Report to the IBSFC, the first part of the
Report to NEAFC, the Report to NASCO and a Report to the EC on the "North Sea Plaice Box". Shortly
after the October-November ACFM meeting, the second part of the Report to NEAFC was issued.
In this publication the separate reports to NEAFC referred to above have been edited into a single report
with the stocks in sequence and including all advice on each stock together. Part 1 contains an
introductory section and sections 1-3 of the report to NEAFC. Part 2 contains sections 4-6 of the report to
NEAFC, and the reports to the EC, IBSFC and NASCO.
The requests for advice from each of the Commissions named above are given in the introductory section
to the report.
In 1994 ACFM adopted a new format for its report. A short description of the format is also given in the
introduction.
10.17895/ices.pub.5318WGSSDS
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-453-4
CRR210_2.pdf
  
1995CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1994. Part 2.ACFM
210
11/24/2020 10:11 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Since the pre-war
period, hake has been the main species supporting the
development of the steam-, then motor-trawl, fleets in
ports of the Atlantic coasts of France and Spain.
10.17895/ices.pub.5319WGSSDS
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-454-1
CRR214_1.pdf
  
1996CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1995. Part 1.ACFM
214
11/24/2020 10:14 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This Cooperative Research Report (Parts 1 and 2) contains the Report of the Advisory Committee on
Fishery Management (ACFM) prepared and issued in 1995. The Report was prepared in response to
requests from the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC), the International Baltic Sea
Fishery Commission (IBSFC), the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCO) and the
European Commission (EC).
Shortly after the May meeting of ACFM, ICES issued extracts of the Report to the IBSFC, NEAFC,
NASCO and the EC. Shortly after the October-November ACFM meeting, the remaining extracts were
issued to NEAFC and the Ee.
In this publication the extracts referred to above have, with the exception of the report to NASCO which is
placed at the end of Part 2, been edited into a single report in two volumes.
The requests for advice from each of the Commissions named above are given in the introductory section
to the report.
In 1994 ACFM adopted a new format for its report. A revised description of the format is also given in
the introduction.
10.17895/ices.pub.5320WGNSDS
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-450-3
CRR214_2.pdf
  
1996CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1995. Part 2.ACFM
214
11/24/2020 10:12 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The whitefish fisheries in Division VIa are predominantly
conducted by otter-trawlers fishing for cod, haddock and
whiting, with by-catches of saithe, anglerfish, megrim and
lemon sole. These trawlers use mesh sizes of 80-100 mm
depending on area and may at times discard considerable
amounts of young haddock and whiting. The majority of
these vessels are locally-based Scottish trawlers using
'light-trawls', but trawlers from Northern Ireland, England,
France and Germany also participate in this fishery. The
importance of Scottish seiners essentially targeted at
haddock has been declining in recent years as many of
these vessels have been converted to trawlers. The larger
Scottish trawlers opportunistically operate in a haddock
fishery at Rockall when occasional good year classes
recruit to the Division VIb stock. Although young saithe
are caught by coastal trawlers, the fishery for saithe
essentially takes place offshore to the west and northwest of
Scotland. Traditionally, this fishery has largely been
operated by the larger deep-sea French trawlers. However,
the number of these vessels has declined in recent years due
to economic difficulties. In the late 1980s, some of these
vessels diverted their activity toward deep-sea species,
notably orange roughy, bnt this fishery has become less
profitable recently. To a large extent, the roundfish fishery
in Division VIa is an extension of the similar fishery in the
North Sea.
10.17895/ices.pub.5321WGNSDS
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-451-0
CRR221_1.pdf
  
1997CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1996 Part 1
221
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This Cooperative Research Report (Parts 1 and 2) contains the Report of the Advisory Committee on
Fishery Management (ACFM) prepared and issued in 1996. The Report was prepared in response to
requests from the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC), the International Baltic Sea
Fishery Commission (IBSFC), the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCO) the
European Commission (EC) and the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO). In
addition, a number of requests were received from ICES Member Governments.
Shortly after the May meeting of ACFM, ICES issued extracts of the Report to the IBSFC, NEAFC,
NASCO and the EC. Shortly after the October-November ACFM meeting, the remaining extracts were
issued to NEAFC and the EC. Responses to the requests from ICES Member Governments were issued
either as separate extracts, or embodied within the extracts prepared for the Commissions.
In this publication the extracts referred to above have, with the exception of the reports to NASCO and
NAMMCO, which are placed at the end of Part 2, been edited into a single report in two volumes.
The requests for advice from each of the Commissions named above are given in the introductory section
to the report.
In 1995 ACFM adopted a new format for its report. A revised description of the format is given in the
introduction.
10.17895/ices.pub.5356WGNSDS
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-445-9
CRR221_2.pdf
  
1997CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1996 Part 2
221
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The roundfish fisheries in the Irish Sea are conducted
primarily by vessels from the bordering countries (UK and
Ireland). The majority of vessels are otter-trawlers fishing
for cod, whiting and plaice, with by-catches of haddock,
anglerfish, hake and sole. The mesh size is 80 mm and 80
mm square mesh panels have been mandatory for UK ottertrawlers
since 1993, and for Irish trawlers since 1994. The
number of Irish vessels operating in this region has declined
in recent years. Fishing effort in the England and Wales
fleet of vessels longer than 12.2 m has also declined rapidly
since 1989, and in 1995 was about 40% of the effort
reported in the 1980s. Since the early 1980s there has been
a development of semi-pelagic trawling for cod and whiting,
predominantly by vessels from Northern Ireland.
10.17895/ices.pub.5357WGNSDS
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-446-6
CRR223_1.pdf
  
1998CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1997 Part 1
223
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This Cooperative Research Report (Parts 1 and 2) contains the Report of the Advisory Committee on
Fishery Management (ACFM) prepared and issued in 1997. The Report was prepared in response to
requests from the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC), the International Baltic Sea Fishery
Commission (IBSFC), the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCO), the European
Commission (EC) and the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO). In addition, a number
of requests were received from ICES Member Governments.
Shortly after the May meeting of ACFM, ICES issued extracts of the Report to the IBSFC, NEAFC,
NASCO and the EC. Shortly after the October-November ACFM meeting, the remaining extracts were
issued to NEAFC and the EC. Responses to the requests from ICES Member Governments were issued
either as separate extracts, or embodied within the extracts prepared for the Commissions.
In this publication the extracts referred to above have, with the exception of the reports to NASCO and
NAMMCO, which are placed at the end of Part 2, been edited into a single report in two volumes. Due to a
change in the standard format of the extracts implemented at the October-November ACFM meeting, some
sections appear somewhat heterogeneous in layout.
The requests for advice from each of the Commissions named above are given in the introductory section to
the report.
10.17895/ices.pub.5358WGNSDS
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-443-5
CRR223_2.pdf
  
1998CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1997 Part 2
223
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The precautionary approach is increasingly being
recognised as a basis for assessment and management
of fish stocks. Implementation of the precautionary
approach requires both additional work by, and
dialogue between science and management. There are
analytical tasks which are inherently the responsibility
of science, and decisions which are inherently the
responsibility of fishery management agencies.
An early step in implementing the precautionary
approach is the identification and agreement of explicit,
operational management objectives. Such objectives
should recognise biological, social, and econontic
characteristics and constraints of fisheries and address
short, medium, and long time frames.
Current developments in application of the
precautionary approach in assessment and advice
suggest that, from the management side, objectives
should be agreed within the biological constraints in
terms of properties of stocks and degrees of risks which
are acceptable or likely to trigger management actions.
From the scientific Side, work is underway at ICES on
how to relate biomass and fishing-mortality based
reference points to properties of stocks and risk in
various time frames, within a precautionary framework.
As a part of the dialogue needed, ICES will provide a
summary of the progress made so far in developing a
framework for precautionary reference points in 1998
10.17895/ices.pub.5359WGNSDS
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-444-2
CRR229_1.pdf
  
1999CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1998 Part 1ACFM
229
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The ICES Advisory Committee for Fishery Management met twice in 1998, 13-22 May and 20-29 October
1998. Both meetings were held at the ICES Headquarters, Palregade 2 4 , Copenhagen. Attendance is listed
on the following pages.
ACFM in its advice includes a proposal for how the Precautionary Approach can be interpreted. This
proposal was developed between the May and October meetings and the format of the report therefore
changed between these two meetings. The proposal on the Precautionary Approach is described in the
introductions to the meeting reports.
The reports are in response to requests from Management Commissions (EC, IBSFC, NEAFC, and NASCO)
and from member countries. These requests are summarised in Sections 1 and 2. The management advice is
presented stock by stock in Section 3 where also the answers to special requests are given
10.17895/ices.pub.5360HAWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-439-8
CRR229_2.pdf
  
1999CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1998 Part 2ACFM
229
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The roundfish fisheries in the Irish Sea are conducted
primarily by vessels from the bordering countries (UK
and Ireland). The majority of vessels are otter-trawlers
fishing for cod, whiting and plaice, with by-catches of
haddock, anglerfish, hake and sole. The mesh size is
80 mm and 80 mm square mesh panels have been
mandatory for UK otter-trawlers since 1993, and for
Irish trawlers since 1994. The number of Irish vessels
operating in this region has declined in recent years.
Fishing effort in the England and Wales fleet of vessels
longer than 12.2 m declined rapidly after 1989, and over
1992-1995 was about 40% of the effort reported in the
1980s,although it has increased again in recent years.
Since the early 1980s there bas been a development of
semi-pelagic trawling for cod and whiting,
predominantly by vessels from Northern Ireland. Some
of these vessels switch between pelagic trawling and
twin-trawl fishing for Nephrops depending on fishing
opportunities and market demands.
10.17895/ices.pub.5361WGNSDS
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-440-4
CRR231.pdf
  
1999CRRStatus of Introductions of Non-Indigenous marine species to North Atlantic waters, 1981-1991
231
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Recording the flora and fauna of habitats has long been practised. In more recent times much attention has been and is being paid to both the deliberate introduction by man of species exotic to marine areas and to the inadvertent appearance of such alien species by factors involving man and other agents. In the marine environment of the ICES area it is inevitable that almost all observations are confined to coastal zones in the ‘open’ marine habitat of the North Atlantic. For ‘semi-enclosed’ areas such as the Mediterranean, Baltic and North Seas and ‘enclosed’ areas such as the Great Lakes a greater degree of observation over the whole is possible. Part of this recording of new introductions and transfers of exotic species which are part of an established trade are observations of the impact of the exotic either because it is successful in establishing reproducing populations or because of its presence.
The First (1980) Status Report on Introductions of Non-Indigenous Marine Species to North Atlantic Waters was prepared by the ICES Working Group on Introductions and Transfers on Marine Organisms (WGITMO) (Anon 1982). This second report, also prepared by WGITMO, covers the decade 1981–1991. It includes summaries of the national reports to the working group from member countries of ICES of introductions and transfers of fish and invertebrates. Because there has been a limited response on plant introductions both in the previous and current decade a comprehensive review of plant introductions with an additional section on the threat from the green algae Caulerpa taxifolia has been included.
10.17895/ices.pub.5362WGITMO
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-438-1
CRR232.pdf
  
1999CRRDiets of seabirds and consequences of changes in food supply
232
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The Working Group on Seabird Ecology was requested
by the Biological Oceanography Committee to assess the
issues most likely to be raised within the ICES
community concerning the foraging ecology of seabirds
and waders, and the potential interactions between these
groups of birds and fisheries. In responding to this
request, the Working Group has listed a number of issues
likely to be of importance. The Working Group
recognized that each of these issues by itself is
potentially the subject for new research and/or for a
major review. The Working Group restricted itself to the
identification of issues, and has used this list as the basis
for developing possible future reports by the Working
Group on Seabird Ecology, singularly, or in co-operation
with other ICES Working Groups or Committees.
10.17895/ices.pub.5363WGSE
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-437-4
CRR233.pdf
  
1999CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment, 1998ACME
233
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The ICES Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment (ACME) met from 8-13 June 1998 at ICES Headquarters in
Copenhagen. As part of its work during this period, the ACME prepared responses to the requests made to ICES by the
OSPAR Commission and the Helsinki Commission. This report contains these responses. In addition to responses to direct
requests, this report summarizes the deliberations of ACME on topics for which advice was not diuectly requested but for
which the ACME felt that there was information that would be of potential interest to the Commissions, ICES Member
Countries, and other readers of this report
10.17895/ices.pub.5364BEWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-436-7
CRR234.pdf
  
1999CRRReport of the Workshop on Ocean Climate of the NW Atlantic During the 1960s abd 1970s and Consequences for Gadoid Populations
234
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A key component of the ICES/GLOBEC Cod and
Climate Programme (ICES 1993) has been the
facilitation of retrospective analyses of physical
oceanographic and other climate-related factors
associated with observed changes in important fishery
resource species. Previous “backward-facing” workshops
have considered case studies of cod in the Northeast
Arctic and tilefish in the Northwest Atlantic (ICES 1995;
1996), and synthesized available information in new and
informative ways (e.g., Marsh et al., 1999).
10.17895/ices.pub.5365WGCCC
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-434-3
CRR235.pdf
  
1999CRRMethodology for Target Strength Measurements (With special reference to in situ techniques for fish and mikro-nekton)
235
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This report has been produced as a result of discussions in
the Fisheries Acoustics Science and Technology (FAST)
Working Group of thelnternational Council of the Exploration
of the Sea (ICES). Following discussions in the FAST
Working Group, it was proposed that a study group on
Target Strength Methodology be formed, which was
recommended by the Fish Capture Committee. This
resulted in ICES Resolution C Res 1992 2:ll: "A Study
group onTarget strengthMethodology is established under
the Chairship of E. Ona (Norway) and will meet in
Gothenburg, Sweden on 19 April 1993 to prepare a report,
with a view to publication in the ICES Cooperative Report
Series on the methodology for Target Strength measurements
with special reference to in situ techniques for fish
and micro- nekton"
10.17895/ices.pub.5367WGFAST
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-433-6
CRR236_1.pdf
  
2000CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1999 Part 1ACFM
236
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The ICES Advisory Committee for Fishery Management met twice in 1999, 12-20 May and 26 October - 4
November 1999. Both meetings were held at the ICES Headquarters, Palzegade 2-4, Copenhagen.
Attendance is listed on the following pages.
ACFM in its advice includes a proposal for how the Precautionary Approach can be interpreted. This
proposal is described in the Introduction.
The reports are in response to requests from Management Commissions (EC, IBSFC, NEAFC, and NASCO)
and from member countries. These requests are summarised in Sections 1 and 2. The management advice is
presented stock by stock in Section 3 where also the answers to special requests are given.
The requests from Management Commissions are now divided into two parts: recurrent advice that is
specified by Memorandum of Understanding between the Management Commissions and ICES and Special
Requests. Recurrent advice includes assessment of stock status and management advice for the more
important stocks in the Northeast Atlantic. This advice is provided in the same form as used by ICES
Advisory Committee for Fishery Management in recent years.
10.17895/ices.pub.5368AFWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-431-2
CRR236_2.pdf
  
2000CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1999 Part 2ACFM
236
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The roundfish fisheries in the Irish Sea are conducted
primarily by vessels from the bordering countries (UK
and Ireland). The majority of vessels are otter-trawlers
fishing for cod, whiting and plaice, with by-catches of
haddock, anglerfh, hake and sole. The mesh size is
80mm and 8Omm square mesh panels have been
mandatory for UK otter-trawlers since 1993, and for
Iriih trawlers since 1994. The number of Irish vessels
operating in this region has declined in recent years.
Fishing effort in the England and Wales fleet of vessels
longer than 12.2 m declined rapidly after 1989. and over
199211995 was about 40% of the effort reported in the
1980s, although it has increased again in recent years.
Since the early 1980s there has been a development of
semi-pelagic trawling for cod and whiting,
predominantly by vessels from Northern Ireland. Some
of these vessels switch between pelagic trawling and
twin-trawl fishing for Nephrops depending on fishing
opportnnities and market demands
10.17895/ices.pub.5369AFWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-432-9
CRR237.pdf
  
2000CRRSeventh Intercomparison Exercise on Trace Metals in Sea Water
237
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This is the seventh intercomparison exercise for trace metals in sea water organized by the Marine Chemistry Working Group (MCWG) of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). It is designated as 7/TM/SW.
The MCWG at its annual meeting in March 1995 formulated a proposal to conduct an intercomparison exercise for trace metals in coastal sea water in order to give laboratories from the participating countries an opportunity to assess their capabilities regarding this type of environmental analysis. The last study of this nature (6/TM/SW) carried out by the MCWG involved estuarine waters and took place in 1986 (Berman and Boyko, 1988).
10.17895/ices.pub.5370MCWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-430-5
CRR238.pdf
  
2000CRRReport on Echo Trace Classification
238
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The standard use of fisheries acoustics is to estimate fish
or plankton abundance in the context of a stock assessment
survey. It is also used to map the abundance distribution
of these resources. However, it is generally agreed
that there is a great deal more information available from
the acoustic data collected during such surveys than a
simple integration of target species biomass. This report
describes the state-of-the-art in the extraction of such information.
This can be defined as Echo Trace Classification
(ETC).
The study of Echo Trace Classification (ETC) is the
characterisation of objects or features seen in an
echogram and relating these together to understand more
about the behaviour and biology of the organisms
involved.
10.17895/ices.pub.5371WGFAST
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-429-9
CRR239.pdf
  
2000CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment, 1999
239
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The Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment
(ACME) is the Council's official body for the provision
of scientific advice and information on the marine
environment, including marine contamination, as may be
requested by ICES Member Countries, other bodies
within ICES, relevant regulatory Commissions, and other
organizations. In addition, at the 1998 Annual Science
Conference, the Council decided that ACME would
handle all advisory tasks other than the standard fishery
advisory requests, which are handled by the Advisory
Committee on Fishery Management (ACFM). However,
the ACFM will review fisheries-related ecosystem
advice before it is sent to clients.
In handling the requests, the ACME draws on the
expertise of its own members and on the work of various
expert ICES Working Groups and Study Groups. The
ACME considers the reports of these groups and requests
them to cany out specific activities or to provide
information on specific topics.
The ACME report is structured in terms of the topics
covered at the ACME meeting on which it has prepared
scientific information and advice; the topics include both
those for which information has been requested by the
Commissions or other bodies and those identified by the
ACME to enhance the understanding of the marine
environment. Information relevant to the Commissions'
requests and specific issues highlighted by the ACME
for their attention are summarized in Section 2 for the
OSPAR Commission and Section 3 for the Helsinki
Commission, where the individual work items from each
Commission are listed and related to relevant sections of
the main text. The full advice in response to the
European Commission DG XIV request concerning
potential impacts of sandeel fisheries on predator
populations is contained in Section 4 of this report.
10.17895/ices.pub.5372BEWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-428-2
CRR240.pdf
  
2000CRRReport on the Young Scientists Conference on Marine Ecosystem Perspectives
240
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This report contains the proceedings and abstracts of papers and posters presented at the Young Scientists Conference
on Marine Ecosystem Perspectives held in Gilleleje, Denmark 20–24 November 1999.
Sponsors
The Conference was organised by The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea in cooperation with The
Danish Academy of Technical Sciences and The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters. It was sponsored by
The Danish Ministry of Education, The Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fishery, The Danish Research
Council, Knud Højgaards Foundation, and the European Commission DG XII.
10.17895/ices.pub.5373WGHANSA
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-427-5
CRR241.pdf
  
2000CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment, 2000ACME
241
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The ICES Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment (ACME) met at ICES Headquarters in Copenhagen twice in 2000, with the first meeting from 26 January to 2 February 2000 and the second from 5 to 10 June 2000. At the first of these meetings, the ACME conducted a scientific peer review of the OSPAR Quality Status Report 2000, prepared a report on the “Status of Fisheries and Related Environment of Northern Seas” for the Nordic Council of Ministers, and prepared a response to a request from the European Commission DG FISH. At the second meeting, the ACME prepared responses to the other requests made to ICES by the OSPAR Commission and the requests from the Helsinki Commission. This report contains these responses. In addition to responses to direct requests, this report summarizes the deliberations of ACME on topics for which advice was not directly requested but for which the ACME felt that there was information that would be of potential interest to the Commissions, ICES Member Countries, and other readers of this report.
10.17895/ices.pub.5374BEWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-426-8
CRR242_1.pdf
  
2001CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 2000 Part 1ACFM
242
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The ICES Advisory Committee for Fishery Management met twice in 2000, 25 May- 1 June and 24 October - 2
November 2000. Both meetings were held at the ICES Headquarters, Palzgade 1! 4, Copenhagen. Attendance is listed
on the following pages.
ACFM in its advice includes a proposal for how the Precautionary Approach can be interpreted. This proposal is
described in the Introduction.
The reports are in response to requests from Management Commissions (EC, IBSFC, NEAFC, and NASCO) and from
member countries. The management advice is presented stock by stock in Sections 3 to 6 where also the answers to
special requests are given.
The requests from Management Commissions are now divided into two parts: recurrent advice that is specified by
Memorandum of Understanding between the Management Commissions and ICES and Special Requests. Recurrent
advice includes assessment of stock status and manasement advice for the more important stocks in the Northeast
Atlantic. This advice is provided in the same form as used by ICES Advisory Committee for Fishery Management in
recent years.
10.17895/ices.pub.5375AFWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-423-7
CRR242_2.pdf
  
2001CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 2000 Part 2ACFM
242
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State of stock/fishery: The stock is within safe
biological limits. SSB has declined since its historical
high in 1998 to below the historical average in 2000. For
the last 20 years, SSB, recruitment and fishing mortality
have fluctuated without trend. The 1997 and 1998 year
classes were below average, while the 1999 year class is
above average
10.17895/ices.pub.5376AFWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-424-4
CRR242_3.pdf
  
2001CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 2000 Part 3ACFM
242
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State of the stocklfishery: There is evidence from the
trends in catches and CPUE series (Figure 3.12.6.a.1)
that the stock of blue ling in Divisions Va and Vb and in
Sub-areas VI and VII is outside safe biological limits.
The proportion of large fish in the landings from
Division Vb and Sub-areas VI and VII has decreased in
the most recent years.
10.17895/ices.pub.5377AFWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-425-1
CRR243.pdf
  
2000CRRReport of the 12th ICES dialogue meeting (First Environmental Dialogue Meeting)
243
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The Dialogue Meeting was held in the offices of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety in Bonn on 7 and 8 September 2000. The list of participants is contained in Annex 1. The agenda is presented in Annex 2.
Since 1980, ICES has been organising Dialogue Meetings to provide a forum at which scientists and managers can come together to discuss matters of mutual importance in relation to the provision of scientific advice.
10.17895/ices.pub.5381N/A
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-422-0
CRR244.pdf
  
2001CRRReport of the Workshop on Gadoid Stocks in the North Sea during the 1960s and 1970s. The Fourth ICES/GLOBEC Backward-Facing Workshop
244
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The Fourth ICES/GLOBEC Backward-Facing Workshop was held in Aberdeen, UK during 11–13 March 1999. The
Workshop was commissioned by the ICES Working Group on Cod and Climate Change, with terms of reference set out
in ICES Council Resolution 2.22 (C.Res.1998/2.22) (Appendix 1).
The objective of the Workshop was to examine the causes of the increases in abundance of gadoid fishes in the North
Sea which occurred during the 1960s and early 1970s, an event which has been referred to as the ‘gadoid outburst’. The
Workshop followed the pattern established by previous Backward-Facing Workshops by using a combination of
retrospective analysis, new process studies and modelling in order to interpret the causes of past population events.
Previous workshops have investigated the tilefish kill during 1881/82 in the Northwest Atlantic (Backward-Facing I;
ICES CM 1995/A:7), the changes brought about by a cold period in the Barents Sea and Baltic (Backward-Facing II;
ICES CM 1996/A:9), and the gadoid outburst in the Northwest Atlantic (Backward-Facing III; ICES CM 1998/C:9 and
ICES Cooperative Research Report 234).
The Workshop reported to the Working Group on Cod and Climate Change (WGCCC), to the Oceanography,
Resources Management, and Living Resources Committees at the 1999 Annual Science Conference, and to the
Advisory Committee on Fisheries Management (ACFM) at its May 1999 meeting
10.17895/ices.pub.5382WGCCC
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-420-6
CRR246.pdf
  
2001CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 2001 Part 1-3
246
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The ICES Advisory Committee for Fishery Management met twice in 2001, 22-31 May and 9-17 October. The fIrst
meeting was held at Hiiljstrnpgard in Helsing¢r, Denmark while the other was held at the ICES Headquarters, Palregade
2-4, Copenhagen. Attendance is listed on the following pages.
ACFM in its advice includes a proposal for how the Precautionary Approach can be interpreted. This proposal is
described in the Introduction and the advice given in Chapters 3-6 of the report is based on that proposal.
The reports are in response to requests from Management Commissions (EC, IBSFC, NEAFC, and NASCO) and from
member countries. The management advice is presented stock by stock in Sections 3 to 6 where also the answers to
special requests are given.
The requests from Management Commissions are divided into two parts: recurrent advice that is specifIed by
Memorandum of Understanding between the Management Commissions and ICES and Special Requests. Recurrent
advice includes assessment of stock status and management advice for the more important stocks in the Northeast
Atlantic. This advice is provided in the same form as used by ICES Advisory Committee for Fishery Management in
recent years.
10.17895/ices.pub.5383AFWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-417-6
CRR247.pdf
  
2001CRREffects of Extraction of Marine Sediments on the Marine Ecosystem
247
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The marine aggregate extraction industry is well established and continues to grow in a number of ICES Member Countries, contributing up to 15 % of some nation’s demand for sand and gravel. Demand for construction has remained relatively stable, with most major increases in extraction being associated with land reclamation for major projects, or for beach replenishment. Some major projects being considered would substantially increase annual demand in the years of their construction.
Since 1992 further reserves of sand and gravel have been reported in both the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. Reserves are not evenly distributed and the reserves of coarse marine aggregates must be considered finite, as should sand reserves in the Baltic. Fine sands are abundant in the North Sea and adjacent areas.
There are no realistic alternatives to the use of marine aggregate material for most beach replenishment and major coastal reclamation schemes. Strategic planning is essential for the future supply of materials, particularly for major construction projects. Most countries have reported concerns about the extraction of aggregates from both the land and sea, and the sustainable use of finite reserves is seen as a key issue for the future. Many countries are encouraging better use of alternative waste materials where they are appropriate in construction and landfill contexts.
10.17895/ices.pub.5384WGEXT
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-416-9
CRR250.pdf
  
2002CRRICES/GLOBEC Sea-going Workshop for Intercalibration of Plankton Samplers (A compilation of data, metadata and visual material)
250
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A Sea-going Workshop for intercomparison and evaluation of methods for sampling and determination of zooplankton in terms of biomass and species composition was held in a fjord environment (Storfjorden at Møre, western Norway) from 2 to 13 June 1993. The workshop was carried out with the German Research Vessel “A.v. Humboldt” (Chief Scientist Lutz Postel) and the Norwegian Research Vessel “Johan Hjort” (Chief Scientist Hein Rune Skjoldal) and involved a total number of 38 scientific personnel from eight countries. The Workshop had two objectives. The first was to assemble a number of instruments to collect zooplankton data and to conduct a series of field experiments that would enable an intercomparison of their results (Table 1). The intercomparisons included gear such as MOCNESS, BIONESS, MULTINET, LHPR, OPC, CPR, WP-2 net (Figure 1), and acoustical recordings at four frequencies (18, 38, 120, 200 kHz). The sampling experiments and some results were presented in a preliminary report (Skjoldal et al., 1993). Some of the data have appeared in more recent publications (Hays, 1994; Wieland et al., 1997; Halliday et al., 2001).
The second objective was to conduct a seminar workshop onboard Research Vessel “Johan Hjort” during the period of the two ship field work, which was attended by 20 scientists. The purpose of the seminar was to discuss issues related to net sampling and use of optical and acoustical techniques for determination of biomass and distribution of zooplankton.
Both of these activities were intended to provide background for material for the ICES Study Group of Zooplankton Production (now the ICES Working Group on Zooplankton Ecology), which was in the process of beginning the task of preparing the “ICES Zooplankton Methodology Manual” (Harris et al., 2000).
10.17895/ices.pub.5385WGZE
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-414-5
CRR252.pdf
  
2002CRRReport of the ICES/GLOBEC Workshop in the Dynamics of Growth in Cod (Including CD-Rom from ICES ASC 2001)
252
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Growth rate varies widely among cod stocks. Large changes in growth rate have also been observed within many cod stocks and have important consequences for the productivity of these stocks. Variation in growth rate may reflect effects of temperature change, density dependence (i.e., changes in per capita prey availability due to variation in prey or cod abundance), changes in maturation schedules, changes in size-selective fishing mortality, changes in activity of the fish or adaptive (genetic) change. An understanding of the causes of variation in growth rate among and within cod stocks may lead to improved forecasts of stock biomass and productivity, and is required to assess the likely impacts of climate change on cod populations. The ICES/GLOBEC Working Group on Cod and Climate Change held a Workshop on the Dynamics of Growth in Cod in May 2000, with the aim of exploring the causes of growth variability and developing a single growth model for cod that will allow interpretation of information from all parts the geographic range of cod.
As a follow-up to the Workshop, a Theme Session was held at the ICES Annual Science Conference in Oslo in September 2001 on Growth and Condition in Gadoid Stocks and Implications for Sustainable Management. Thirty papers were presented and are included in this Cooperative Research Report as a CD-Rom containing abstracts, extended abstracts or full papers.
10.17895/ices.pub.5386WGCCC
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-412-1
CRR253.pdf
  
2002CRRICES Science 1979-1999: The View from a Younger Generation
253
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The six articles in this number of the ICES Cooperative Research Report series provide an overview of important developments in key fields of marine science in the ICES Area between 1979 and 1999. They constitute a review of the twenty years of progress since the date of the last article contained in Study of the Sea, an anthology of material stem-ming principally from ICES publications and edited by Edgar M. Thomasson, former ICES Librarian/Information Officer (Fishing News Books, 1981).
The Bureau Working Group on the Planning of the ICES Centenary, through its Chair, Michael M. Sinclair, and John Ramster, asked Pierre Petitgas to coordinate the preparation of this publication. It was mutually agreed that a balanced and unbiased review of recent work conducted under the auspices of ICES would best be undertaken by the younger generation of marine scientists.
10.17895/ices.pub.5387WGCCC
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-411-4
CRR254.pdf
  
2002CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, 2002
254
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The ICES Advisory Committee on Ecosystems (ACE) met from 7 to 11 June 2002. During this meeting, ACE prepared responses to requests from the European Commission Directorate General for Fisheries on the by-catch of small cetaceans in fisheries and on the occurrence of cold-water corals that may be impacted by fisheries; ACE also provided some preliminary material on issues of concern to the EC in relation to the impacts of fishing on the ecosystem. Furthermore, ACE provided a preliminary response to the Helsinki Commission with regard to a request on marine habitat classification, and, at the request of the OSPAR Commission, reviewed the evidence for the justification for the proposed OSPAR Priority List of Threatened and Declining Species and Habitats
10.17895/ices.pub.5388WGMMPH
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-410-7
CRR255_1.pdf
  
2002CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 2002. Part 1ACFM
255
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The ICES Advisory Committee for Fishery Management met twice in 2001, 21 - 30 May- and 9 - 17 October 2002. Both meetings were held at the ICES Headquarters, Palægade 2–4, Copenhagen. Attendance is listed on the following pages.
ACFM in its advice includes a description on how the Precautionary Approach have been interpreted in the ICES advice, see Form of Advice in the Introductory Chapter.
The reports are in response to requests from Management Commissions (EC, IBSFC, NEAFC, and NASCO) and from member countries. The management advice is presented stock by stock in Sections 3 to 8 where also the answers to special requests are given.
The requests from Management Commissions are now divided into two parts: recurrent advice that is specified by Memorandum of Understanding between the Management Commissions and ICES and Special Requests. Recurrent advice includes assessment of stock status and management advice for the more important stocks in the Northeast Atlantic. This advice is provided in the same form as used by ICES Advisory Committee for Fishery Management in recent years.
10.17895/ices.pub.5389AFWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-407-7
CRR255_2.pdf
  
2002CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 2002. Part 2ACFM
255
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In November 2000, ICES indicated that a number of cod stocks and the stock of northern hake were at serious risk of collapse. Following this, various emergency measures covering these stocks were enacted in 2001 by Norway and the EU. This was in addition to measures adopted by the EU to aid recovery of Irish Sea cod in the previous year. Proposals for longer-term recovery plans for these stocks were also made by the EU. These proposals include multi-annual recovery plans for northern hake and for cod in the North Sea, to the west of Scotland, in the Kattegat, and in the Irish Sea.
The proposed recovery plans aim to increase spawning stock biomass, SSB, to above the adopted biological reference point, Bpa, of each stock. The necessary tools proposed to achieve recovery are TACs set to ensure a high probability that SSB will increase annually by 30% for the cod stocks and 15% for the hake stocks. Within the recovery period there is a proposed maximum annual variation of TACs of no more than 50% from year to year. The tolerance for year-to-year changes in TACs is symmetric, and has higher priority than ensuring the target increase in SSB if the two rules are in conflict. The rule with highest priority is that fishing mortality should not be permitted to exceed Fpa in any year. To achieve the necessary decreases in fishing mortality, fishing effort limitations are also an integral part of the proposal in addition to measures to temporarily close fishing areas and to increase monitoring and control of fishing vessels.
10.17895/ices.pub.5390AFWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-408-4
CRR255_3.pdf
  
2002CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 2002. Part 3ACFM
255
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In some parts of the northeast Atlantic where the continental shelf is narrow, such as off Portugal (including Madeira and the Azores), there are traditional fisheries, for example for black scabbardfish (Aphanopus carbo) and red (=blackspot) seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo), which have been exploiting deepwater species for many years. Other traditional species are ling, blue ling, and tusk, which have supported large fisheries in wide areas for several decades. The existence of other potentially exploitable stocks in the ICES area has been known since the 1960s and 1970s. However, before the 1980s, with the exception of a fishery for species such as roundnose grenadier (Coryphaenoides rupestris) there was little interest from the fishing industry in exploiting stocks in international waters.
Since the 1980s, dwindling resources on the continental shelves of the North Atlantic have encouraged the development of fisheries in deeper waters. There has been a tendency for fisheries for species such as anglerfish and Greenland halibut to extend into deeper waters, and new fisheries have developed to target the new deepwater species that have been found there. Deepwater species such as the argentine or greater silver smelt (Argentina silus) and roundnose grenadier (Coryphaenoides rupestris), which were previously by-catch species have been targeted within the ICES area for the last two decades. Orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) has been a target species since the early 1990s
10.17895/ices.pub.5391AFWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-409-1
CRR256.pdf
  
2002CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment, 2002
256
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The ICES Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment (ACME) met from 3 to 7 June 2002. As part of its work during this period, the ACME prepared responses to the requests made to ICES by the OSPAR Commission and the Helsinki Commission. This report contains these responses. In addition to responses to direct requests, this report summarizes the deliberations of ACME on topics for which advice was not directly requested but for which the ACME felt that there was information that would be of interest to the Commissions, ICES Member Countries, and other readers of this report.
As a result of the creation of the Advisory Committee on Ecosystems (ACE), several topics previously handled by ACME have been moved to the remit of ACE and scientific information and advice on these topics can be found in the ACE report for 2002. The topics covered include ecosystem effects of fishing, ecological quality objectives, ecosystem modelling and assessment, marine mammals issues, biodiversity issues, and marine habitat classification and mapping.
10.17895/ices.pub.5392BEWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-382-7
CRR257.pdf
  
2003CRRProceedings of the Baltic Marine Science Conference (Rønne, Denmark 22-26 October 1996)
257
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When ICES agreed to publish this collection of papers from the 1996 Baltic Marine Science Conference it had just
completed devising a new structure for its Science Committees. This structure included an ecosystem-based group, the
Baltic Committee, which reflected the strong interest of ICES in supporting the community of Baltic scientists, as well
as its recognition that the Baltic would provide a valuable test bed for its ambition of developing ways to manage
ecosystems in an integrated way. This ambition is still cherished and is manifested now, not only in a thriving Baltic
Committee, but also through its active support, in its Secretariat, of the Project Office of the World Bank’s GEF “Baltic
Sea Regional Project (BSRP)” under the leadership of Jan Thulin. BSRP is an ambitious new project for managing the
Baltic Sea ecosystem.
ICES recognised the importance of the Conference by sending the Chair of its Advisory Committee on the Marine
Environment (Dr Katherine Richardson) to represent its interests there. Katherine contributed to the Conference by
making a presentation on “The Baltic Sea – A Grand Challenge for ICES”. In this she explained ICES interests from a
Baltic perspective and how ICES supports Baltic science. In particular she noted that almost half of the Member
Countries of ICES are in fact Baltic countries, which meant that ICES interests in the region had a very firm foundation.
She also noted that Baltic science must be steered to address all the vital problems of the area in a multidisciplinary
way, and that ICES is the organisation best suited to undertake the required steering.
This collection of papers represents an excellent cross-section of most of the current science issues pertaining to the
Baltic. It is a document that will be put to good use within ICES and that will also be of great value to the whole Baltic
community and anyone else interested in the scientific understanding of the Baltic Sea.
10.17895/ices.pub.5393WGMG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-381-0
CRR258.pdf
  
2003CRRSeabirds as Monitors of the Marine Environment
258
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This is the third ICES Cooperative Research Report produced by the Working Group on Seabird Ecology, following on from Reports on seabird/fish interactions (ICES Cooperative Research Report No. 216) and the diets of seabirds and the consequences of changes in food supply (ICES Cooperative Research Report No. 232). This ICES Cooperative Research Report focuses on the use that might be made of seabirds as monitors of the marine environment.
Section 2 examines the possibilities of using seabirds to monitor marine pollution, and recommends that they be used in monitoring a variety of substances. These recommendations are further developed in Section 5. Subsequent to this work, several of these recommendations have been developed for possible use as Ecological Quality Objectives (EcoQOs) under OSPAR and the North Sea Conference process. Ministers from around the North Sea adopted an objective in relation to the proportion of oiled common guillemots found dead or dying on beaches that “the proportion of such birds should be 10% or less of the total found dead or dying, in all areas of the North Sea (Bergen Declaration). In addition, Ministers requested that work continue towards defining EcoQOs in relation to mercury concentrations in seabird eggs and feathers, organochlorine concentrations in seabird eggs and plastic particles in the stomachs of seabirds. These decisions demonstrate the usefulness of seabirds in this area
10.17895/ices.pub.5394WGSE
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-380-3
CRR260.pdf
  
2003CRRStockholm 1999 Centenary Lectures
260
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The 1999 Annual Science Conference held in Stockholm included an Open Lecture and a special programme of four Centenary Lectures on subjects relating to the history of ICES. One lecture, by Alasdair D. McIntyre, was revised and included in “100 Years of Science under ICES” (ICES Marine Science Symposia, Volume 215). The four papers published in ICES Cooperative Research Report, No. 260, comprise the manuscripts for the lectures subsequently revised by publication, by David de G. Griffith, Jakob Jakobsson, Artur Svansson, and Warren S. Wooster
10.17895/ices.pub.5395N/A
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-378-0
CRR261.pdf
  
2003CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 2003. Parts 1-3ACFM
261
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The ICES Advisory Committee for Fishery Management met twice in 2003, 27 May–5 June and 8–16 October 2002.
Both meetings were held at ICES Headquarters, Palægade 2–4, Copenhagen. Attendance is listed on the following pages.
The report includes a description on how the Precautionary Approach has been interpreted in the ICES advice (see
Form of Advice in the Introductory Chapter). The Form of Advice has been changed since last year with respect to the
mixed fisheries on demersal stocks in Division IIIa and Subareas IV, VI, VII, VIII, and IX and is now built on an explicit consideration of fisheries impact on the fish stock complex (mixed fisheries). This consideration has previously been presented in connection with the target stock. The evaluation of the individual stock status is unchanged, however; the management advice for mixed fisheries is presented under the Area Overviews (sections 3.5.1, 3.7.1, 3.8.1, 3.9.1,
and 3.10.1) and not in the sections dealing with individual stocks.
The reports are in response to requests from Management Commissions (EC, IBSFC, JNRFC, NEAFC, and NASCO)
and from member countries. The requests from Management Commissions fall into two categories: recurrent advice
that is specified by Memoranda of Understanding between the Management Commissions and ICES, and Special
Requests. Recurrent advice includes assessment of stock status and management advice for the more important stocks in the Northeast Atlantic. This advice is provided in the form used by ICES Advisory Committee for Fishery Management in recent years
10.17895/ices.pub.5396WGNSSK
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-377-3
CRR262.pdf
  
2003CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee in Ecosystems, 2003
262
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The ICES Advisory Committee on Ecosystems (ACE) met from 19 to 23 May 2003. During this meeting, ACE
prepared an initial response to the request from the European Commission Directorate General for Fisheries concerning
the ecosystem impacts of industrial fishing. ACE also prepared advice, in addition to that in the 2002 ACE report, in
response to EC requests on the by-catch of small cetaceans in fisheries and on the occurrence of cold-water corals that
may be impacted by fisheries, as well as providing some further advice on other issues of concern to the EC in relation
to the impacts of fishing on the ecosystem. Furthermore, ACE provided responses to requests from the Helsinki
Commission on the status of populations of marine mammals in the Baltic marine area and advice on monitoring
programmes to estimate the abundance of seals and other marine mammals in the Baltic Sea; ACE also provided brief
additional material in relation to a request on marine habitat classification. In response to requests from the OSPAR
Commission, ACE has prepared an extensive review, and advice for further development, of four of the Ecological
Quality Objectives in the Pilot Project for the North Sea, as well as initial consideration of nine other Ecological Quality
Elements that are not part of this Pilot Project. ACE also completed its review, begun in 2002, of the evidence for the
justification for the proposed OSPAR Priority List of Threatened and Declining Species and Habitats.
10.17895/ices.pub.5397WGECO
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-376-6
CRR263.pdf
  
2003CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment, 2003
263
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The Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment (ACME) is the Council’s official body for the provision of scientific advice and information on the status and outlook for the marine environment, including contaminants, as well as a range of other environmental issues, as may be requested by ICES Member Countries, other bodies within ICES, relevant regulatory Commissions, and other organizations.
In handling the requests, the ACME draws on the expertise of its own members and on the work of various expert ICES Working Groups and Study Groups. The ACME considers the reports of these groups and requests them to carry out specific activities or to provide information on specific topics.
The ACME report is structured in terms of the topics covered at the ACME meeting on which it has prepared scientific information and advice.
The topics include both those for which information or advice has been requested by the Commissions or other bodies and those identified by the ACME to enhance the understanding of the marine environment.
10.17895/ices.pub.5398BEWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-375-9
CRR265.pdf
  
2004CRRTrends in important diseases affecting the culture of fish and molluscs in the ICES area 1998-2002
265
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One of the regular Terms of Reference of the ICES
Working Group on Pathology and Diseases of Marine
Organisms (WGPDMO) since its inception in 1976 is to
provide and review annual national reports submitted by
ICES Member Countries on the disease status of farmed
fish and shellfish and to highlight new disease trends.
At its 2000 meeting, the WGPDMO emphasized that
these reports could be made even more informative if
presented as trends over a five-year period. This would
make it possible to obtain an impression of diseases that
might create problems in the near future. Such
information on emerging disease problems, especially in
new fish and mollusc species brought into aquaculture, is
considered to be of importance for countries planning the
development of production of these species.
In order to facilitate a wide dissemination, the
WGPDMO agreed that such a report should be brought
to the attention of ICES Member Countries, national and
international organizations involved in diseases of
farmed marine organisms, and interested scientists and
managers by means of appropriate publications. The
basic idea is to present this information in the ICES
Cooperative Research Report series and on the ICES
website as an internet publication which may be updated
biannually.
It is the intention for the future that this report will
address long-term trends in disease development in
mariculture.
10.17895/ices.pub.5399WGPDMO
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-373-5
CRR266.pdf
  
2004CRRMesh Size Measurement Revisited
266
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In 1291 Philip IV the Fair, King of France, forbade “de
pescher avec engins de file de quoy la maille (n ait) la
moule d’un gros tournois d’argent” or, to fish with nets
with meshes smaller than the size of a silver coin of that
time (Hovart, 1985). This silver coin can be seen as a
predecessor of the present-day wedge gauge used to
check whether the meshes of fishing nets comply with
modern technical regulations.
A mesh gauge developed by C. J. W. Westhoff under
the auspices of the ICES Comparative Fishing Committee
became the standard gauge for research activities in
ICES countries in 1962 (ICES, 1962a) and became
known as the ICES gauge (Figure 1). To make a measurement
the ICES gauge exerts a fixed longitudinal
measuring force on the mesh. The recommended measuring
force is 4 kilogramforce (kgf). When the ICES gauge
is correctly used, the measurements are free of human influence.
Since its introduction the ICES gauge has been
generally used in selectivity experiments, to provide scientific
advice on minimum regulated mesh sizes. However,
since 1962 a wide range of new twines and netting
types have been adopted in the fishing industry. These
modern twines vary significantly in thickness and stiffness,
characteristics which affect both mesh size and selectivity.
10.17895/ices.pub.5400WGFTFB
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-372-8
CRR315.pdf
  
2012CRRIntegrated marine environmental monitoring of chemicals and their effectsHAPISG
315
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The marine environment is the ultimate repository for complex mixtures of persistent chemicals. Consequently, organisms are exposed to a range of substances, many of which can cause metabolic disorders, an increase in disease prevalence, and, potentially, effects on populations through changes in, for example, growth, reproduction, and survival. Through much of the history of marine pollution research and monitoring, chemical and biological field studies have often remained largely independent of each other. There are many publications describing the distribution of hazardous substances in the marine environment and, equally, many describing the perturbations of species or communities as a consequence of exposure to hazardous substances. However, it is now generally agreed that the assessment of environmental quality, and the design and monitoring of measures to improve environmental quality, are best undertaken on the basis of combinations of appropriate sets of chemical and biological measurements. There have been many apparent barriers to following this strategy; for example, there has been a lack of coherent frameworks to guide the selection of organisms, substances, and biological effects measurements for monitoring and assessment programmes; and a lack of guidance on methodology, particularly guidance on the interpretation of data in terms of biological (environmental) significance and on how suites of chemical and biological measurements can be integrated to give the added power and scope of assessment promised by such a multifactorial approach.
The pressure to clarify an integrated approach to biological effects and chemical monitoring increased following the OSPAR Quality Status Report (QSR) 2010 process, and the requirements of Descriptor 8 under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). OSPAR, together with HELCOM, have agreed on an ecosystem approach to managing the marine environment, under which OSPAR has committed itself to monitoring the ecosystems of the marine environment in order to understand and assess the interactions between, and impact of, human activities on marine organisms. Integrated monitoring and assessment of contaminants in the marine environment and their effects will contribute effectively to the integrated assessment of the full range of human impacts on the quality status of the marine environment, as part of the ecosystem approach. MSFD Descriptor 8 of “Good Environmental Status” (contaminant concentrations do not give rise to biological effects) very clearly points towards integrated chemical and biological assessment methods.
contaminants; biological effects measurement; chemical monitoring; ecosystem monitoring; OSPAR; water quality; environmental stressors10.17895/ices.pub.5403WGBEC
TextDavies, I. M.; and Vethaak D. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-318-6
CRR310.pdf
  
2011CRRICES status report on climate change in the North Atlantic
310
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Since 1990, when the First Assessment Report (FAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change (IPCC, 1990) was published, literature on climate change has
grown exponentially. Nowadays, climate change is a challenging scientific issue that
has developed a body of observations, models, and hypotheses that is being used to
assess possible consequences for critical processes involved in the functioning of the
Earth. This progression has strongly influenced other disciplines, modifying
approaches to topics such as risk analysis, socio‐economics, ethics, politics, energy,
natural resource management, geo‐engineering, and even evolution. The scientific
debate has moved rapidly from observations to impacts to discussions of potential
mechanisms that may be used to mitigate and adapt to this new reality; a
development that reflects an urgent need to minimize the impacts of global warming
by taking action based on robust scientific knowledge.
In a succession of assessment reports, from the first to the fourth (FAR, SAR, TAR,
AR4; IPCC 1990, 1996, 2001, 2007a, respectively), the IPCC has played an essential
role in organizing data and synthesizing results published in a vast scientific
literature. Development of a comprehensive understanding of the ramifications and
implications of climate change for human society, and for the ecology and
sustainability of the entire planet, is only possible by adopting such an international,
integrated approach. However, the information published in the scientific literature is
often incomplete, local, and fragmented, and up to the most recent report (AR4) had
given only modest coverage to the oceans (Richardson and Poloczanska, 2008).
North Atlantic; climate change; plankton; fish; ocean climate; oceanography; invasive species; sea level rise; benthic communitities; acidification; primary production; non-native10.17895/ices.pub.5404WGPME
TextReid, P. C.; Valdes, L. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-324-7
CRR311.pdf
  
2012CRROne hundred years of catch statistics for the Northeast AtlanticACOM
311
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ICES has published fishery statistics since 1904, beginning with data for 1903, and
has, for many years, presented landings data in electronic form in the Eurostat/ICES
database covering the period 1973 to the present. This electronic database has been
extended to include all landings data available from volumes of ICES Bulletin
Statistique des Pêches Maritimes covering the period 1903 – 1972. The data for 1950 and
later are available for downloading from the Eurostat and ICES websites, while the
data for 1903 – 1949 are available only on the ICES website. The data format for 1950 –
2008 is in the form of annual time‐series by species and area, while the 1903 – 1949
data are presented as Excel books (one for each country), with one spreadsheet for
each year. The data are available from the ICES website
(http://www.ices.dk/fish/statlant.asp). The Excel files for 1903 – 1949 are available as
zipped versions of the individual Microsoft Excel country files, while the data for
1950 to the present on the Eurostat website (http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.
eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/search_database
) are presented in Eurostat’s eDAMIS
system.
The data sources are the national statistical offices, but in some countries, the
collection and compilation of fishery statistics is handled by specialized
organizations.
The geographical breakdown is according to the ICES system of subareas, divisions,
and subdivisions (Figures 1a and 1b; from the CWP Handbook on Fishery Statistical
Standards (FAO, 2003)). The area coding for older data has been converted into the
coding used today because the original area breakdown was different. Where areas
were changed after about 1960, the principle of only subdividing areas, but not
creating cross‐cutting new areas, was followed.
Data presented in the databases have not been corrected for non‐reported landings,
where these may have occurred. Therefore, in some cases, the data differ from those
presented in ICES fish stock assessment working group reports.
Today, the data on the Eurostat website (Eurostat/ICES database) are constantly
updated with corrections and amendments that the countries provide after the
submission deadlines. However, this updating was previously done through
footnotes and the occasional supplementary table in the printed version of the
following years, or, in some cases, not at all. It has been a major effort to go through
the archives in the ICES Secretariat and update the data with such amendments and
corrections.
The data for the period 1950 – 2008 may be used as a coherent time‐series of landings
as reported to ICES by the national statistical offices, covering all species which have
any major occurrence and covering the entire ICES area.
The transfer of data into electronic form and, at the same time, review of the data
going back into the ICES Secretariat’s archives was recognized by ICES and Eurostat
as a project of mutual interest to be undertaken within the terms of the ICES/Eurostat
Partnership Agreement.
Fisheries; catch statistics; catches; North Atlantic; landings10.17895/ices.pub.5405WGNSSK
TextLassen; H.; Cross; D.; Christiansen, E.1017-6195978-87-7482-322-3
CRR312.pdf
  
2012CRRFishery applications of optical technologies
312
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This report begins with a brief review of the optical properties of the ocean, which
determine what is possible with optical systems. These properties can vary
considerably from familiar acoustical properties. For example, in the clearest waters,
66 % of the light is scattered and absorbed over distances of tens of metres, whereas
sound can travel much farther, depending on wavelength. However, the transmission
of optical energy through the air – sea interface is ca. 98 % at near‐normal incidence,
whereas the corresponding transmission for acoustic energy is ca. 0.1 %, and all
acoustic systems in use are operated in contact with the ocean. This review is
followed by a description of available optical technologies, some of the issues that
must be considered in their use, and practical applications.
Several commonly used optical techniques have not been included in order to
concentrate on more recent technology. Visual observations, often aided by
binoculars, from aircraft and surface vessels have long been used, especially for
counts of seabirds and marine mammals. Similarly, visual observations by divers
have been important in, for example, coral reef monitoring (Samoilys and Carlos,
2000). The use of microscopes in plankton studies is considered to be a welldeveloped
technology and beyond the scope of this report. Underwater cameras and
video have been used extensively by divers, and by manned and unmanned
submersibles, to collect images without quantitative analysis. We will only discuss
applications where images have been used for quantitative analyses.
optics; light; Fisheries; fishery management10.17895/ices.pub.5406WGFAST
TextJ. Churnside; M. Jech; E. Tenningen; (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-321-6
CRR313.pdf
  
2012CRRICES Phytoplankton and Microbial Plankton Status Report 2009/2010EPDSG
313
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The ICES Science Plan adopts an ecosystem
approach to management that is built on scientific
capacity to understand ecosystem functioning. To
understand, one should first know; to know, one
should first observe. To understand well and to
know much, one should observe far and wide and
for long and always. This, in a manner of speaking,
is the rationale for multidecadal oceanic ecological
datasets and their application in marine ecology
and biogeochemistry (Ducklow et al., 2009) as well
as in marine policy and management (Edwards et
al., 2010).
The ICES Status Report on Climate Change in the
North Atlantic (Reid and Valdés, 2011) is a review
of the scientific literature, including a consideration
of long-term physical variability (Holliday et al.,
2011), chlorophyll and primary production (Bode et
al., 2011a), and an overview of trends in plankton
communities (Licandro et al., 2011). The knowledge
base underlying this literature continually expands
through status reports on oceanic hydrography
from the Working Group on Oceanic Hydrography
(WGOH) (Hughes et al., 2011) and on zooplankton
ecology from the Working Group on Zooplankton
Ecology (WGZE) (O’Brien et al., 2011). The Working
Group on Phytoplankton and Microbial Ecology
(WGPME) emerged from the Planning Group on
Phytoplankton and Microbial Ecology (PGPYME)
in response to an ICES need for linkage between
hydrography and zooplankton. An interim status
report was presented earlier (Li et al., 2011a).
In this first full report, the ecological status of
phytoplankton and microbial plankton of the
North Atlantic and adjacent seas is presented by
reference to seven geographical regions containing
61 monitoring locations (Figures 1.1 and 1.3), and
to 40 standard areas of the Continuous Plankton
Recorder survey (Figure 1.2). Coverage stretches
from the subpolar waters of the Labrador Sea to
the subtropical waters of southwestern Iberia, and
extends into the Mediterranean Sea.
phytoplankton; plankton; ecological status; climate change; North Atlantic10.17895/ices.pub.5407WGPME
TextO´Brien, T.D.; Li, W.K.W.; and Morán, X.A.G.1017-6195978-87-7482-320-9
CRR306.pdf
  
2010CRRLife-cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic
306
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The spatial organization of fish populations is expected to play a key role in population
dynamics and its response to environmental forcing. It has been argued (Sinclair, 1988) that
the size of populations and the spatial organization of their life cycles match key
oceanographic physical features in space and time. The characterization of a functional
linkage between key physical features and fish habitats was recognized as a first and
important step towards understanding the variability of spatial patterns and population
dynamics. Therefore, the 2004 – 2006 reports of the ICES Study Group on Regional Scale
Ecology of Small Pelagic Fish (SGRESP; ICES, 2004a, 2005, 2006a) attempted to characterize
patterns in the life‐cycle organization of fish stocks in the Northeast Atlantic and cross‐map
these with physical features. Results were consistent with previous findings.
In Sinclair’s (1988) perspective, physical retention explained maintenance of the life‐cycle
pattern, and vagrancy out of the pattern corresponded to losses to the population.
However, in this case, the maintenance of these patterns is explained by biological
behavioural processes and population substructure. This led to the recognition that habitats
are not necessarily occupied, even if they are potentially suitable, because of the history of
the population.
In this report, we document life‐cycle patterns and how they match physical features for
small pelagic fish stocks in the Northeast Atlantic. Species considered include herring
(Clupea harengus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus), anchovy (Engraulis
encrasicolus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), and blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou). For
each case study of a stock, a similar template was followed, and the knowledge compiled of
the stock’s biology, life‐cycle pattern, and past history, served as an “identity card” for the
populations. The template documents life history traits; habitats for all life stages
(spawning, feeding, wintering, and nurseries); migration patterns, including larvae drift;
long‐term trends in the population; potential environmental influences; and observed
changes (e.g. spawning, migration, and behaviour) in relation to climate or ecosystem
change (e.g. Baltic Sea). The proposed schematic representation of life‐cycle patterns
allowed the differentiation of the roles of different migratory components in structuring
life‐cycle patterns. It can also serve as a knowledge basis for spatial management.
Perspectives on continuing the work relate to habitat modelling, bioenergetics, behaviour,
and operational oceanography.
fish; North Atlantic; pelagic fish; distribution; life cycle10.17895/ices.pub.5408WGNPBW
TextPetitgas, P. (Ed.)1017-6195978-87-7482-328-5
CRR307.pdf
  
2011CRRICES Zooplankton Status Report 2008/2009EPDSG
307
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This is the eighth summary report of zooplankton
monitoring in the ICES Area. This year’s report
includes seven new survey sites: one in the western
North Atlantic (Site 9, Bermuda Atlantic Timeseries
Study, or BATS), two in the Baltic Sea (Site
19, Gulf of Finland; Site 23, the Baltic Proper), one
adjacent to the North Sea (Site 28, Loch Ewe), and
three along the west Iberian peninsula (Site 31,
Gijón; Site 33, Vigo; Site 34, Cascais). The total site
count has only increased from 37 to 40 from the last
report because four transect-based sites from the
previous 2008 report were combined into a single
site and summary section (e.g. Svinøy East and
Svinøy West are now summarized under Svinøy
transect, Site 13). This report summarizes the North
Atlantic Basin and its major subregions using these
40 zooplankton monitoring sites (Figure 1.1) as well
as the 40 Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR)
standard areas (Figure 1.2).
Although this report follows previous reports in its
general structure and analysis, new standardized
data components and graphical visualizations have
been added. For example, each site report now
begins with a standard figure series demonstrating
the seasonal cycles of zooplankton, chlorophyll, and
temperature at that site. Multivariate figures then
provide a quick overview of zooplankton interactions
and/or synchrony with other co-sampled biological
and hydrographic variables available for the site.
Finally, a long-term assessment of each monitoring
area is made using a 100-year record of sea surface
temperature data and up to 60 years of CPR
zooplankton data (when available near that site).
The methods and data sources used for this report
are summarized in Section 2.
plankton; zooplankton; climate change; time series10.17895/ices.pub.5409WGZE
TextO’Brien, T.D.; Wiebe, P.H.; and Hay, S. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-327-8
CRR308.pdf
  
2011CRRSediment dynamics in relation to sediment trend monitoring
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This report discusses the underlying processes of sediment dynamics in the North
Sea, the Baltic Sea, and several estuaries in order to indicate the broad range of
conditions that exist within the ICES Area. It is important to be aware of these
processes when designing monitoring programmes in order to ensure that the data
collected can be the foundation of a more meaningful interpretation. This
introductory section does not seek to define which monitoring strategies should be
used, but demonstrates that it is necessary to consider the sediment dynamics present
in the area being studied when designing a monitoring programme.
Time‐trends in contaminant, nutrient, and carbon concentrations in sediments are
usually inferred from sediment cores or from surface sediments taken during
repeated sampling exercises. Physical, chemical, and biological processes, all
components of sediment dynamics, can affect the concentration of contaminants.
Physical processes include erosion, transport, deposition, and resuspension. These
processes are driven by various different forces, such as isostatic movement, tidal and
wind‐driven currents, and density currents. For example, in the Baltic Sea, increased
eutrophication may lead to deep‐water oxygen deficiency that subsequently causes
the creation of laminated sediments, and these apparently allow a strong down‐core
time‐control on contaminant input. However, these down‐core trends may be
distorted by several processes, including the increased input of clean sediment
resulting from increased wind‐driven erosion of glacial clays that are subject to
isostatic uplift. In the North Sea, the upper 10 cm of sediment in a sandy area may
reflect contaminant input during the most recent months, or even days, because of
the constant reworking of the sediment and potentially large bulk‐sediment
movement, while the upper 10 cm of sediment in a muddy depositional area with a
slow deposition rate may represent accumulation over the last 25 – 50 years or more.
sediment; North Sea; Baltic Sea; monitoring10.17895/ices.pub.5410N/A
TextBelzunce, M.J.; Boutier, B.; Gieske, H.; González, J.L.; Jonson, P.; Mason, C.; Monteyne, E.; Schmolke, S.; and Schubert, B.1017-6195978-87-7482-326-1
CRR305.pdf
  
2010CRRCod and future climate change
305
10/13/2020 11:54 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
As part of the ICES/GLOBEC programme on Cod and Climate Change (CCC), a
Workshop on Cod and Future Climate Change (WKCFCC) was held between 17 and
20 June 2008 in Copenhagen (ICES, 2008a). The objective was to develop projections
for the likely dynamics of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) over the next 20 – 50 years
based on (i) regional climate scenarios that included anthropogenic climate change,
and (ii) knowledge of the impact of climate on cod and other species gained during
the CCC programme. The projections would consider not only the direct climate
effects on cod, but also possible indirect climate effects resulting from changes in the
prey (including zooplankton), predators, and competitors of cod.
The development of reliable regional climate scenarios by downscaling (statistical or
coupled) from global circulation models (GCMs) depends on the overcoming of a
number of problems. Most existing downscaled scenarios are based on GCMs that
pre‐date the recent IPCC model runs (IPCC, 2007a). One regional model for the North
Sea was downscaled from a recent run; however, the IPCC GCM in question poorly
reproduced the current climate for the region, which calls into question the credibility
of regional downscaling. It was concluded that regional models should be
downscaled from several GCMs, chosen by their ability to reproduce the current
climate (not only temperature, but also wind and pressure fields, precipitation, etc.).
Because many of the IPCC 2007 model results demonstrate large deviations from
current regional climate observations, this limits the number of GCMs that can be
used for downscaling. Furthermore, the two major modes of variability over the
Atlantic Ocean during the past century, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO)
and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), are reproduced poorly by the GCMs
(Section 3.2). On an encouraging note, however, models that assimilate recent climate
data (and include the decadal modes) demonstrate useful forecasting skill, at least
over periods of a few years (Section 3.4).
Currently, the lack of reliable regional climate projections makes it unrewarding to
implement coupled biological models of lower trophic level dynamics impacts on cod
(Gadus morhua) populations for predictions over the next 20 – 50 years. Currently
available global and regional climate models are probably only adequate for
exploring impacts on the North Atlantic marine ecosystem in a preliminary way and
not for quantitative projections. Considerable scientific effort will be required to
design, initialize, run, and statistically test downscaled or fully coupled regional
models that are consistent with observed climate modes and data at global and
regional scales and that produce reliable output for the relevant variables affecting
biological systems. Impact assessments can, for now, be based on “what if” scenarios,
but the likelihood of these scenarios and the time‐scale over which they may occur is
not known.
codfish; Fisheries; climate change10.17895/ices.pub.5411WKCFCC
TextDrinkwater, K.F., Schrum, C., and Brander, K.M. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-329-2
CRR301.pdf
  
2010CRRResolving climate impacts on fish stocks
301
11/24/2020 10:33 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Evidence is accumulating that the increase in CO2 is affecting the global climate, with
far‐reaching implications for biological processes and ecosystem services (IPCC,
2001). Marine capture fisheries yield ca. 85 million tonnes year −1 and provide an
economic basis for many communities, with a total value of US $50 billion. The
sustainability of the fisheries is being jeopardized by overfishing (Pauly et al., 1998;
Jackson et al., 2001; Jørgensen et al., 2007), but climate change may also affect the
productivity of fishery resources (Brander, 2005; Harley et al., 2006; Lehodey et al.,
2006).
The general concern about global warming and its effects has triggered a rapidly
increasing body of scientific literature, in which ecological time‐series are correlated
with environmental indicators (Drinkwater, 2005; Weijerman et al., 2005; Brunel and
Boucher, 2007). Recent studies suggest that there is evidence for a northward shift in
the distributional range of fish species (Quéro et al., 1998; Hiscock et al., 2001; Beare et
al., 2004; Perry et al., 2005) and changes in the productivity of commercially exploited
stocks (O’Brien et al., 2000; Brander, 2005), but the mechanisms underlying these
changes remain uncertain. Hence, it is largely unknown whether the observed
distributional shifts are caused by a relocation of the spawning and feeding grounds,
a change in the local survival of fish, or immigration into new habitats.
climate change; fish; Fisheries; sustainability; Atlantic; Baltic Sea; mediterranean sea10.17895/ices.pub.5412WGHANSA
TextRijnsdorp, A.D., Peck, M.A., Engelhard, G.H., Möllmann, C., Pinnegar, J.K., (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-333-9
CRR302.pdf
  
2010CRRIntegrated ecosystem assessments of seven Baltic Sea areas covering the last three decadesIEASG
302
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ecosystem-based management; integrated ecosystem assessment; marine resources; Baltic Sea10.17895/ices.pub.5413WGIAB
TextDiekmann, R., and Möllmann, C. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-332-2
CRR303.pdf
  
2010CRRCephalopod biology and fisheries in Europe EPDSG
303
10/13/2020 12:29 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
Over the past two decades, cephalopod molluscs have attracted increased attention
from marine biologists and fishery scientists. Several species are important for
European fisheries, as targets of small‐scale coastal fisheries and/or as bycatch in
multispecies fisheries for demersal fish. The present report draws on a series of
reviews prepared in 2005 for the CEPHSTOCK project (see Section 1). The taxonomy
of the main resource species is reviewed (Section 2), and brief descriptions of each
species are provided, along with information from studies of population genetics,
habitat requirements of paralarvae and adults, and health and ecotoxicology (Section
3). The main fisheries are described, including illustration of gears used in specialized
small‐scale fisheries and a discussion of the socio‐economic importance of the
fisheries. The current status of cephalopod aquaculture is reviewed, highlighting
notable advances in commercial culture of octopus and cuttlefish (Section 4). Current
fishery data collection and fishery management are described, noting that there is no
setting of landings quotas and no routine assessment of stock status. Options for
stock assessment are discussed, drawing on one‐off assessments made during specific
projects and current practice elsewhere in the world. The “live fast, die young” lifehistory
strategies of cephalopods present particular challenges, but parallels can be
drawn with short‐lived fish (Section 5). Finally, the report looks to the future,
reviewing possible effects of climate change on cephalopods. It discusses the future
development of aquaculture and fisheries for cephalopods, including prospects for
fishery forecasting and fishery management – especially in relation to the small‐scale
directed fisheries. Various knowledge gaps are identified, and ideas for research to
fill these gaps are presented.
cephalopod; mollusc; ecological status; habitat; population genetics; taxonomy; ecotoxicology10.17895/ices.pub.5414WGCEPH
TextPierce, G.J., Allcock, L., Bruno, I., Bustamante, P., González, A., Guerra, A., et al. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-331-5
CRR300.pdf
  
2010CRRProceedings of the "Joint ICES/CIESM Workshop to Compare Zooplankton Ecology and Methodologies between the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic (WKZEM)"
300
10/14/2020 11:53 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The Gulf of Cadiz is strategically located, connecting the open Atlantic Ocean with
the Mediterranean Sea. The nutrient enrichment of local coastal waters is assumed a
consequence of discharge from the Guadalquivir River (Huertas et al., 2006) and the
Guadiana River (Chícharo et al., 2006; Cravo et al., 2006). Moreover, sea surface
temperature remote sensing and in situ temperature observations demonstrate the
occurrence of upwelling off the Algarve coast (Fiúza, 1983; Folkard et al., 1997), thus
contributing to the enrichment of the coastal water and providing a well‐diversified
plankton community within the Gulf of Cadiz. This local productivity in the coastal
areas of the Gulf of Cadiz is exported to other regions, namely the western basin of
the Mediterranean, assisted by Atlantic surface water entering through the Strait of
Gibraltar.
This continuous inflow of surface Atlantic water into the Mediterranean Sea has an
important influence on the ecology and hydrology of the western and eastern basins.
Andersen et al. (2001) suggested that relatively high zooplankton diversities in the
study zone of the western Mediterranean might be the result of exchange with the
Atlantic Ocean. This environment in general, and the Algarve coastal zone in
particular, has been scarcely studied from the physical ‒ planktonic coupling
perspective (García et al., 2002; Ruiz and García‐Lafuente, 2006), which contrasts with
the extensive oceanographic literature on the Strait of Gibraltar and the other adjacent
basin, the Alboran Sea (e.g. Gómez et al., 2001; Echevarría et al., 2002). This work is a
first attempt to characterize the mesozooplankton community in the Algarve coastal
zone and to help understand the dynamics of the Gulf of Cadiz planktonic
assemblages.
zooplankton; North Atlantic; mediterranean sea; methodology; ecosystem10.17895/ices.pub.5415WKZEM
TextGislason, A., Gorsky, G., (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-334-6
CRR290.pdf
  
2008CRRChanges in surface CO2 and ocean pH in ICES shelf sea ecosystems
290
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The primary purpose of this document is to report the recommendations resulting
from the ICES WORKSHOP ON THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGING OCEAN CO2 AND PH IN
ICES SHELF SEA ECOSYSTEMS held between 2 and 4 May 2007 in London. Some excellent
reports have already been published in this field, first by the Scientific Committee
on Oceanic Research (SCOR; Arvidson, 2005), then by the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration/National Science Foundation/US Geological Survey
(NOAA/NSF/USGS; Kleypas et al., 2006), the Royal Society (The Royal Society, 2005),
the German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU; WBGU, 2006), and most
recently by the OSPAR Commission (OSPAR, 2006) and the Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change (IPCC; Metz et al., 2005). Cognizant of these recent efforts, the
ICES Workshop set out with a slightly different aim to investigate the links between
potential changes in pH and its effects on marine ecosystem components, such as
plankton, fish and shellfish, and cold‐water corals. To this end, the Workshop covered
ground already considered by others, to provide a sound base for the prediction
of likely impacts. The present report will outline those relevant issues, but the reader
is advised to refer to other reports for greater detail. The novel focus of this report is
the potential effects on ecosystem functions with links to fisheries, with a recommendation
for work to be done to better understand the impact of this problem on the
entire ecosystem, and specifically on fisheries. Most of the material used was presented
at the Workshop, with Annex 1 being the most significant exception.
10.17895/ices.pub.5416N/A
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-346-9
CRR299.pdf
  
2009CRRAlien species alert: Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oyster)
299
11/24/2020 10:34 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas, Thunberg, 1793) is one of 20 species in the genus
Crassostrea. Although native to the Japan/Korea region, C. gigas is a hardy species that
has been introduced to a number of countries worldwide, including the US, Canada,
the UK, France, Korea, China, New Zealand, Australia, South Africa, and South
America, mainly for aquaculture purposes (Mann et al., 1991; Orensanz et al., 2002).
As a result, C. gigas has become the leading species in world shellfish culture, with an
estimated production of 4.6 million t in 2006 (FAO, 2008). Because C. gigas does not
require additional food to sustain its growth, this species is relatively inexpensive
and easy to produce. Its capacity to adapt to various environmental conditions and
temperature fluctuations, coupled with its rapid growth and resistance to highly
turbid areas, contributes to its success.
10.17895/ices.pub.5417WGITMO
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-335-3
CRR297.pdf
  
2009CRREffects of extraction of marine sediments on the marine environment 1998-2004
297
11/24/2020 10:34 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Each year across the ICES Area, approximately 53 million m 3 of sand and gravel are
extracted from licensed areas of the seabed as a source of aggregate for the construction
industry, either to supplement land‐based sources or as a source of material for
beach nourishment. Because planning constraints and resource exhaustion are tending
to restrict the extraction of sand and gravel (aggregate) from terrestrial sources,
attention is increasingly being focused on the importance of seabed resources to satisfy
part of the demand for aggregates. The seabed is also recognized as the only viable
source of material for beach recharge in coastal defence schemes. In recognition
of this, the exploitation of marine resources is supported in most ICES Member Countries
by national and international minerals policies, subject to environmental safeguards.
The use of marine resources reduces the pressure to work land of agricultural
importance or of environmental and hydrological value and, where materials can be
landed close to the point of use, an additional benefit is that long‐distance overland
transport is avoided. However, the benefits of using marine sand and gravel must be
balanced with the potentially significant environmental impacts.
The scale of marine aggregate extraction has increased in recent years. This rise reflects
the increasing constraints on land‐based extraction and the recognition that
controlled dredging is sustainable in the foreseeable future. Interest by the general
public in the effects of marine sand and gravel extraction on the environment and
fisheries has grown in line with this expansion of effort. Issues such as the potential
for conflict of interest between stakeholders in the resource and the efficacy of remedial
measures during and after extraction are analogous to those arising from landbased
activities. However, in the marine environment, their resolution is rendered
more difficult because of the relative inaccessibility of sites, the general paucity of
site‐specific data on the structure and functional role of the habitat and biota associated
with sand and gravel deposits, and problems in quantifying the performance of
local fisheries. Further core drivers for understanding the impacts of marine aggregate
extraction exist at the international level. In particular, there is an increasing focus
on the conservation of marine biodiversity, following the Rio Earth Summit, and
on the protection of marine habitats (under the EU Habitats Directive) of whole sea
areas through international management initiatives under OSPAR, HELCOM, and
the EU Marine Strategy Directive. OSPAR, HELCOM, and ICES are also promoting
transnational cooperation in developing the ecosystem approach to marine management.
Of particular relevance is the increasing emphasis in national and international
fora on the development of more holistic (ecosystem‐level) approaches to marine environmental
management, including evaluations of the scope for “cumulative” or
“in‐combination” effects.
10.17895/ices.pub.5418WGEXT
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-338-4
CRR294.pdf
  
2009CRRHake age estimation: state of the art and progress towards a solution
294
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Since 1992, northern and southern hake (Merluccius merluccius) stock assessments
have used age data based on otolith analysis. Age data for stock assessment is provided
by different institutions, which implies a quantification of age‐reading precision
to estimate assessment quality indicators. During this period, considerable effort
has been made to improve the precision of age data by means of successive agereading
calibration exercises, exchanges, and workshops in 1997, 1999, 2001, and
2004. This goal was partly achieved, and experts recently agreed on standard criteria
(Piñeiro and Saínza, 2003) that allowed an acceptable precision to be reached for ages
up to 3 years (Piñeiro et al., 2004). However, these criteria have never been validated,
and recent mark ‒ recapture experiments are not in line with ageing results based on
the standard criteria.
Given the impact of bias in age estimation on stock assessment results, consequent
management advice, and concern about the state of the hake stocks (ICES, 2007a,
2007b), a report on the current state of the art is needed. The main goal of this report
is to present a synthesis of the work carried out over the years by researchers involved
in providing age data for stock assessment, mainly on age‐reading calibration
exercises, and current knowledge regarding the growth and ageing of this species.
This report also includes recommendations for future work aimed at achieving validated
age‐reading criteria.
10.17895/ices.pub.5419WGHMM
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-342-1
CRR295.pdf
  
2009CRRManual of recommended practices for modelling physical-biological interactions during fish early life
295
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The objectives of this manual of recommended practices (MRP) are to summarize
appropriate methods for modelling physical – biological interactions during the early
life of fish, to recommend modelling techniques in the context of specific applications,
and to identify gaps in knowledge. This manual is intended to provide a reference
for early‐career modellers who are interested in applying numerical models to
fish early life and who would benefit from a summary of recommended practices for
coupled biological – physical models that incorporate predictions from threedimensional
circulation models to determine the transit of fish eggs, larvae, and juveniles
from spawning to nursery areas. For current practitioners of numerical modelling
in fish early life, the manual provides updates on latest techniques and areas in
need of further research. Although the manual focuses on finfish, many of the summarized
modelling techniques and recommended practices apply to modelling
planktonic organisms, including zooplankton and other meroplankton (e.g. molluscs
and crustaceans).
It is important to recognize that “best” modelling practices depend upon the objective
of the modelling exercise. In other words, no single model is appropriate to all applications.
Instead, model formulations are situation‐specific. Because methodologies
depend upon the goal of the endeavour, this manual includes an overview of basic
components of fish early life models and presents recommendations in the context of
three specific applications: adaptive sampling, connectivity, and recruitment prediction.
The first three sections (Section 1 – Hydrodynamic models, Section 2 – Particle tracking,
and Section 3 – Biological processes) summarize methodologies that are important
components of three‐dimensional models of the early life of fish. The next three
sections (Section 4 – Application 1: adaptive sampling, Section 5 – Application 2: connectivity,
and Section 6 – Application 3: recruitment prediction) discuss the application
of selected methodologies to specific issues that are commonly addressed with
these models. The final section summarizes the information gaps and research needs
identified throughout the manual.
This MRP grew out of participant discussions at the “Workshop on Advancements in
Modelling Physical – Biological Interactions in Fish Early Life History: Recommended
Practices and Future Directions” (WKAMF) held on 3 – 5 April 2006 in Nantes, France.
This manual does not contain an exhaustive review of all approaches to modelling
the early life of fish. Instead, it is intended to be a general reference for fish early life
modelling that includes citations that will direct readers to in‐depth treatments of
specific topics. In addition, it should be noted that this document does not represent
the consensus recommendations of all authors. Each section was written separately.
In some cases, differences in recommendations and perspectives exist. These apparent
contradictions may stem from dissimilarity in the time or space scale of the models
used by the authors or the ecosystem in which the authors are most experienced
(e.g. temperate vs. tropical). The issues on which recommendations or perspective
diverge are those that remain an active area of research. This manual is a “living”
document: future revisions and updates are expected as our understanding and
methods evolve.
10.17895/ices.pub.5420WGPBI
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-341-4
CRR218.pdf
  
1997CRRAtlas of North Sea benthic infauna. Based on the 1986 North Sea Benthos Survey
218
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In 1981, the International Council for the Exploration of
the Sea established a Working Group on North Sea
Benthos (Council Resolution 1981/2:6). One of the aims
of the Working Group was to provide synoptic maps of
qualitative and quantitative aspects of the status of the
benthic communities in the North Sea. After reviewing
the state-of-the-art of benthos investigations, the Working
Group concluded that the available data were not
sufficient to produce such a complete review of the fauna!
assemblages. The Working Group therefore
recommended that a large-scale benthos survey, covering
the whole North Sea and using standard sampling and
processing techniques, be initiated to solve this problem
(ICES, 1982; ICES, 1983). The programme was planned
in more detail at the Working Group meetings in 1984
and 1985 (ICES, 1984; 1985).
10.17895/ices.pub.5421BEWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-448-0
CRR296.pdf
  
2009CRRDefinition of standard data-exchange format for sampling, landings, and effort data from commercial fisheries
296
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Standardization of data-exchange formats is a natural and necessary development of the increasing need for cooperation and integration of fisheries data between insti-tutes. However, the existence of several standards to report the same data is time consuming, threatens the quality of the information, and is frustrating for those in charge of reporting the data. In spite of such problems, data-exchange formats have proliferated in recent decades, driven by the need to fulfil specific tasks associated with research projects and/or expert groups.
The format described in this report became a de facto standard that emerged from a long development period and is now recognized informally by large parts of the fish-ery scientific community. On several occasions, it has proven to be efficient at ad-dressing different usages, particularly automated data exchange in distributed sys-tems and data warehousing.
This report will describe in detail the exchange format, providing information about its usage in distinct environments. Given the lack of formal methods for setting standards, publication by ICES in this series will make this available to the fishery com-munity. In Section 1.2, we elaborate on the principles that were adopted to de-velop a format that would meet the needs and compromises in the best and most en-during way possible.
10.17895/ices.pub.5422WGBFAS
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-339-1
CRR292.pdf
  
2008CRRICES Zooplankton Status Report 2006/2007
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This is the seventh summary of zooplankton monitoring in the ICES Area and expands on previous reports with improved analysis, data, and presentation. This year’s report includes eight new monitoring sites: five from the western North Atlantic, two from the northern Baltic, and one from the northern Skagerrak. For each of the 37 zooplankton monitoring sites (Figure 1), WGZE has continued to seek out and include co-sampled temperature and chlorophyll data, as well as any available phytoplankton and nutrient data.
Although this report follows the structure of previous reports, it now features a new “standardized” graphical visualization for each site. This new presentation quickly summarizes the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of the zooplankton at each site and offers a quick overview of zooplankton interactions and/or synchrony with other co-sampled biological and hydrographic variables at the site. Each site also includes a long-term assessment of the monitoring area through comparison with a 100-year record of sea surface temperature (SST) data and up to 60 years of continuous plankton recorder (CPR) zooplankton data (when available near that site). Finally, this report concludes with a basin-wide overview of SST, phytoplankton, and zooplankton across the entire North Atlantic, using data from the CPR surveys (Figure 2).
This year’s report also includes a brief introduction to six Mediterranean zooplankton monitoring sites (Figure 1, yellow stars), a tribute to our Mediterranean colleagues, as ICES and the Mediterranean Science Commission (CIESM) prepare for the October 2008 “Joint ICES/CIESM Workshop to Compare Zooplankton Ecology and Methodologies Between the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic” (WKZEM; www.wkzem.net)
10.17895/ices.pub.5449WGZE
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-344-5
CRR293.pdf
  
2008CRRThe effect of climate change on the distribution and abundance of marine species in the OSPAR Maritime Area
293
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10.17895/ices.pub.5450WGZE
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-343-8
CRR288.pdf
  
2007CRRStructure and dynamics of the North Sea benthos
288
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The ICES Study Group on the North Sea Benthos Project 2000 undertook to integrate recent
(1999–2002) macrobenthic infaunal and environmental data from various national sources.
The main aim was to compare the outcome with that of the ICES North Sea Benthos Survey
conducted in 1986, to identify any significant changes and their likely causes.
In the process, the exercise yielded valuable lessons for the conduct of international
collaborative programmes, as well as insights into the utility of a range of interpretational
tools. These are timely in view of increasing requirements for periodic, sea-wide assessments
of quality status to meet international obligations, such as those under OSPAR, ICES,
HELCOM, and EU auspices for European waters.
10.17895/ices.pub.5451BEWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-348-3
CRR287.pdf
  
2007CRRCollection of acoustic data from fishing vessels
287
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Acoustic data from fishing vessels provide a valuable source of information for fishery
management. To maximize the utility of fishing vessel acoustic data, objectives must be
clearly defined in the context of the potential impact on the management of the fishery and the
overall input to the ecosystem approach to fishery management. This can be achieved through
a qualitative or quantitative evaluation of all monitoring needs within the fishery, through a
monitoring strategy within a harvest strategy to explore the sampling needs, and necessary
accuracy and precision to meet management objectives.
10.17895/ices.pub.5452WGFAST
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-349-0
CRR286.pdf
  
2007CRRAcoustic seabed classification of marine physical and biological landscapes
286
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The natural world is structured hierarchically, and processes within natural regions operate
across a number of spatial and temporal scales (Turner et al., 2001). Managing marine
ecosystems requires that natural regions be identified and mapped over a range of
hierarchically nested scales, and management of resources across multiple spatial scales
requires a classification system. The development of classification schemes is an active area of
marine research. The EUNIS (European Nature Information System) classification scheme is
being developed and managed by the European Topic Centre of Nature Protection and
Biodiversity (ETC/NPB in Paris) for the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the
European Environmental Information Observation Network (EIONET; Davies and Moss,
1999). Alternatively, top–down habitat classification schemes have been developed for global
applications in the management of marine resources (e.g. Greene et al., 1999; Valentine et al.,
2005). The further development and application of these classification schemes require
explicit information that characterizes marine habitats on a variety of spatial scales. Acoustics
is increasingly regarded as the remote-sensing tool that will provide the basis for classifying
and mapping ocean resources. Existing acoustic systems can measure seabed sediment
properties and bedform morphology from scales of centimetres to kilometres.
10.17895/ices.pub.5453WGMHM
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-350-6
CRR285.pdf
  
2007CRRResults of the spring 2004 North Sea ichthyoplankton surveys. The distribution of fish eggs and larvae from the international ichthyoplankton survey
285
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A key recommendation of the meeting of scientific experts, which accompanied the Fifth International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea, 20-21 March 2002, Bergen, Norway, was that there should be regular monitoring of the spawning grounds of important commercial fish species. Up to this point there had never been a comprehensive survey of spawning grounds covering the whole North Sea. The problem was seen as particularly pressing in relation to cod, where a lack of up-to-date information hampered the design of suitable protection measures. In response, ICES set up a planning group (PGEGGS) to review whether a complete North Sea survey targeting eggs and larvae would be feasible. Planning took several years owing to the complex international nature of the problem, but in late 2003 and early 2004, ichthyoplankton surveys covering the whole North Sea were conducted to comprehensively assess the spawning areas of cod and plaice. The survey itself was titled PLACES (Plaice and Cod Egg Survey) to distinguish it from the work of the planning group (PGEGGS). A group of international research institutes took part from England, the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, and Norway. Subsamples of eggs that were “cod-like” in appearance were presorted from samples at sea and preserved in ethanol for analysis using species-specific genetic probes. The remainder of each sample was preserved in formalin, and the ichthyoplankton were identified later, using traditional visual methods. A full account of the material and methods used, plus initial results of the distributions of cod and plaice spawning, can be found in Fox et al. (2005a). Details of the molecular methods used to identify cod-like eggs are reported in Taylor et al. (2002). For the cod-like eggs, proportions were assigned, based on the genetic results at each station, but these results are not presented here. This report presents the distributions and abundances of eggs and larvae of the other species identified from the survey series.
10.17895/ices.pub.5454PGEGGS
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-351-3
CRR284.pdf
  
2007CRRStatus of Introductions of Non-Indigenous marine species to North Atlantic waters and adjacent waters, 1991-2002. (Ten year summary of national reports considered at meetings of the Working Group on Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms
284
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As an intergovernmental organization on marine research that also deals with fisheries, ICES
was confronted early on with issues related to the introductions of non-indigenous species,
particularly diseases and parasites transferred with live transport of fish and shellfish for
relaying, stocking, ranching, and for fresh fish markets. During the late 1960s and early 1970s,
a primary concern was the need to assess the risks associated with deliberate transfers of
species. As a result, the Working Group on Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms
(WGITMO) was launched, meeting for the first time in Convy, Wales, 4 April 1979. Since
then, the working group has met almost annually, with its 25th anniversary meeting held in
Vancouver, Canada in 2003.
The first status report prepared by WGITMO on introduced species in the North Atlantic and
its adjacent waters appeared in 1980. The second report, Status of Introductions of Non-
Indigenous Marine Species into North Atlantic Waters 1981–1991, was published as ICES
Cooperative Research Report No. 231 in 1999. The present report continues the earlier efforts
and summarizes species introductions as reported during WGITMO meetings 1992–2002
(Table F1). The list of participants at the meetings considered here is provided in Annex 1.
The national reports received during the reporting period (Table F2) were considered in detail
in the preparation of this report. It should be noted that attendance at WGITMO meetings was
not continuous for all ICES member countries. Canada, England and Wales, Ireland, Sweden,
and the US delivered national reports to all meetings. Non-ICES member countries such as
Australia and Italy also provided comprehensive information on introduced species.
10.17895/ices.pub.5455WGITMO
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-352-0
CRR283.pdf
  
2007CRRAlien Species Alert: Undaria Pinnatifida (Wakame or Japanese Kelp)
283
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Since the early 2000s, the Japanese kelp, Undaria pinnatifida, native to the northwest Pacific,
occurs on all continents except – so far – Africa and Antarctica, and it has become one of the
main target species for biosecurity. In an analysis ranking species traits of 113 introduced
seaweeds in Europe, it was the third most invasive seaweed. There are several reasons for its
success as an invader, especially its great ability to colonize artificial substrates and disturbed
areas rapidly, as well as shells of oysters and mussels, and it can grow very fast, reaching
lengths of up to 2–3 metres. Other reasons are its high tolerance for adverse conditions, such
as high turbidity and eutrophication, and the nearly invisible gametophytes’ ability to survive
being out of water for more than a month and act as a “seed bank”. The reproductive output is
large, and zoospores may be released all year-round, which contributes to its colonization
potential. Further, Undaria often develops into a fouling problem. This not only affects ships
and boats, but also structures used in aquaculture and molluscs growing on the seabed. On the
other hand, it has economic value as a source of food (“wakame”), which has been the
motivation for intentional introductions to some areas for farming.
In the early 1970s, it made its first appearance on another continent as an unintentional
introduction with oysters that were brought from Japan to the French Mediterranean coast. In
the early 1980s, it was intentionally introduced from the Mediterranean Sea for farming in
Brittany, northwestern France, from where it later dispersed to other northern European
countries. In the late 1980s, it was recorded both in New Zealand and Australia, having been
brought by shipping from Asia, which also was the vector for its spread to Argentina in the
early 1990s. Thus, the main vectors for unintentional introductions have been ships or small
boats as well as oyster movements in aquaculture (including illegal ones).
10.17895/ices.pub.5456WGITMO
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-353-7
CRR282.pdf
  
2006CRRIncorporation of process information into stock-recruitment models
282
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In 1999, the ICES Oceanography Committee (OCC) supported the creation of an ICES expert
group to investigate the separation of environmental influences from underlying stock–
recruitment relationships. The ICES Study Group on the Incorporation of Process Information
into Stock–Recruitment Models (SGPRISM) was formed and so afforded an opportunity for
biologists and stock assessment practitioners to meet under a common theme and to begin the
much-needed process of integrating biological knowledge and stock assessment methods and
techniques.
This ICES Cooperative Research Report represents a synthesis of the work from the three
SGPRISM meetings, held in 1999, 2001, and 2002 (ICES, 2000, 2001, and 2002). The list of
participants and their attendance appears in Section 12. The group’s terms of reference (ToRs)
appear in Annex 1.
The study group’s first meeting (ICES, 2000) concentrated on such environmental issues as
drivers of recruitment variability. The second meeting considered both possible environmental
and biological causes of recruitment fluctuations (ICES, 2001). The third meeting (ICES,
2002) focused on developing modelling and stock assessment tools.
10.17895/ices.pub.5457HAWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-355-1
CRR264.pdf
  
2004CRRAlien Species Alert: Rapana venosa (veined whelk)
264
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The large Asian gastropod mollusc Rapana venosa Valenciennes 1846 (Neogastropoda, Muricidae) is native to the Sea of Japan, Yellow Sea, Bohai Sea, and the East China Sea to Taiwan. This species has been introduced to the Black Sea with subsequent range expansion to the Adriatic Sea and Aegean Sea, the Chesapeake Bay on the East Coast of the United States, and the Rio de la Plata between Uruguay and Argentina. Reproductive populations are or appear to be present in all three receptor regions.
In addition, there are a limited number of reports of the species from the Brittany coastline of France, Washington State (USA), and two collections from the North Sea and New Zealand. The life history of this species makes it a viable candidate for continuing range expansion and new invasions facilitated by ballast water vectors. This review describes the current status of knowledge of the species in its home range and introduced populations.
10.17895/ices.pub.5471WGITMO
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-374-2
CRR267.pdf
  
2004CRRReport of the Thirteenth ICES Dialogue Meeting: Advancing scientific advice for an ecosystem approach to management: collaboration amongst managers, scientists, and other stakeholdersACFM
267
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The Thirteenth ICES Dialogue Meeting “Advancing scientific advice for an ecosystem approach to management:
Collaboration amongst managers, scientists, and other stakeholders” was held at Dublin Castle, Dublin, Ireland, on 26
and 27 April 2004. The meeting was one of the significant government-sponsored events held under the Irish
Presidency of the European Union and was opened by Ireland’s Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural
Resources, Mr Dermot Ahern, TD. The Marine Institute hosted the meeting. Participation is listed in Annex 1. The
programme is presented in Annex 2.
Since 1980, ICES has been organizing Dialogue Meetings to provide a forum at which scientists and managers can
come together to discuss matters of mutual importance in relation to the provision of scientific advice. The overall
objective of Dialogue Meetings is for ICES to communicate with its partners to ensure that there is good understanding
of mutual requirements in relation to the formulation and provision of advice. While early Dialogue Meetings were held
with groups of fishermen, this later evolved to dialogues more with the management organizations, principally the
Commissions. The Thirteenth Dialogue Meeting, with its broad and complex topic, brought together higher-level
government administrators at the national and international level, scientists involved in the process of developing
scientific advice in relation to an ecosystem approach, and a range of stakeholders from industries such as fishing,
chemicals, and shipping.
10.17895/ices.pub.5472N/A
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-370-4
CRR268.pdf
  
2004CRRThe DEPM Estimation of Spawning-Stock Biomass for Sardine and Anchovy
268
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The first part of the Section (Sections 2.2–2.3) summa-rizes the DEPM surveys that have been performed for sardine and anchovy in European waters. Emphasis is given to applications in Atlantic waters (where DEPM estimates are used routinely in stock assessment), but a brief description of known applications in the Mediterra-nean are also provided. The second part of the chapter (Sections 2.4 and 2.5) describes the most recent surveys in Atlantic waters (2002) in more detail, in order to demonstrate the survey and estimation methodology applied. Estimates are based on the traditional methods (Lasker, 1985; Hunter and Lo, 1997), which continues to provide the standard estimates of spawning-stock biomass for the purposes of stock assessment. However, results for 2002 should be compared to those obtained by the application of GAMs (Sections 3.3 and 3.4 for sardine and anchovy respectively), although GAM estimates of adult parameters and SSB are necessarily provisional (given that they were applied for the first time during the course of the most recent SGSBSA meeting). In the case of sardine, estimates based on mean survey values are compared to post-stratified and GAM-based estimates to clarify whether inappropriate sampling design under spatial structure in abundance and adult parameters can lead to biased biomass estimates (Stratoudakis and Fryer, 2000; ICES, 2002).
10.17895/ices.pub.5473WGHANSA
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-369-8
CRR270.pdf
  
2004CRRThe Nephrops fisheries of the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean - A review and assessment of fishing gear design
270
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A review of the commercial trawl fisheries where Nephrops is a component of the catch was undertaken. These have considerable geographical coverage, ranging from Iceland to Portugal and into the Mediterranean. Nephrops is a highly important commercial species, valued at 208 million Euros (€) in 2001. The fisheries, with a few exceptions, are typi-cally multi-species, with the relative economic importance of Nephrops varying considerably between fisheries. Due to the smaller mesh size used in comparison to demersal fish fisheries, the degree of discarding of other species can be high. Additionally, due to the poor trawl selection characteristics, high grading, and legislative restrictions, the discard-ing of Nephrops is considerable in certain fisheries. A range of gear related technical measures are applied in order to mitigate discard levels, but further improvements are required. There is a lack of parameterised selectivity data for many of the existing technical measures, making any population independent assessment of their effectiveness impossi-ble. The report is divided into geographical areas and, for each of these, the fisheries are described, fleet adaptations to legislation are discussed and a review of the remedial measures that have been tested or applied is provided. Based on this information, fishery or area specific recommendations are made. In addition to the fishery specific recommenda-tions, more general recommendations are also given.
10.17895/ices.pub.5474WGFTFB
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-366-7
CRR271.pdf
  
2005CRRVector Pathways and the Spread of Exotic Species in the Sea
271
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This document is intended to review the current state of knowledge concerning vectors of species introduc-tions, provide a brief overview of the potential risks associated with each broad category of vectors, and identify significant knowledge gaps. It has evolved from discussions of the ICES WGITMO and SGBOSV. Reports can be found at:
http://www.ices.dk/iceswork/wgdetailacme.asp?wg=WGITMO
http://www.ices.dk/iceswork/wgdetailacme.asp?wg=SGBOSV).
Although our understanding of the vectors is reasona-bly good, assigning vector strengths can be difficult and largely dependent on local or regional trading ac-tivities, and political and socio-economic circum-stances. Not all vectors continue to operate, and some become more powerful at specific times (e.g., Camp-bell and Hewitt, 1999). In this account, we attempt to outline the principal vectors that are likely to result in further non-indigenous species spread, including both introductions and transfers. Some vectors may trans-port fundamentally different sets of organisms (e.g. mussels attached to a ship’s hull, juvenile creatures within the mussel clumps, species encrusting on the mussels, species burrowing into the mussel shells, and pathogens or microalgae inside the mussels). Con-versely, some species may be spread by several differ-ent vectors (e.g., larval mussels may be transported in the plankton in ballast water; adult mussels may be transported as hull foulers, as intentional aquaculture species, or as associated species accidentally intro-duced with stock for culture).
10.17895/ices.pub.5475WGITMO
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-365-0
CRR272.pdf
  
2005CRREcosystem Effects of Fishing: Impacts, Metrics, and Management Strategies
272
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In this Chapter we present the logical development of the operational framework for selecting and using Ecosystem Objectives in fisheries management. We start with the framework of single-species reference points that ICES adopted for advice on fisheries management in 1997, and consider what extensions to the approach would be necessary to protect ecosystem properties, as well as single stocks, from serious or irreversible harm from fishing. Once the necessary extensions to the single-species reference points were identified, we considered what ecosystem management objectives would be appropriate in order to structure the selection and use of reference points for ecosystem properties. In undertaking this, it became clear that there was great potential for confusion of terms and concepts, particularly because many groups, with different professional make-ups, were publishing material on this subject. Therefore we undertook a careful exposition of the appropriate language for discussing ecosystem objectives, reference points, and related topics, to ensure that dialogue was consistent with the already established practices in both single-species fisheries management, and protection of habitats and species from pollutants.
10.17895/ices.pub.5476WGCOMP
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-364-3
CRR273.pdf
  
2005CRRGuidance on the Application of the Ecosystem Approach to Management of Human Activities in the European Marine Environment
273
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This report is an input to the development of the European Marine Strategy (EMS). It was written by a core group established jointly by ICES and the European Commission and has been subject to wide stakeholder consultation in one of the working groups set up to support the development of the EMS process – the Working Group on Ecosystem Approach to human activities (EAM).
The report is directed at the Governments of countries participating in the Marine Strategy, including Member States as well as non-EU countries bordering the regional seas shared with the Community. The audience is also the European Commission and the Marine Conventions responsible for conservation and protection of the marine environment, and the scientific community. The core group worked during 2003–2004 with the following members:
Jake Rice (Canada)
Valentin Trujillo (Spain)
Simon Jennings (UK)
Ketil Hylland (Norway)
Olle Hagström (DG ENV)
Armando Astudillo (DG FISH)
Jørgen Nørrevang Jensen (ICES Secretariat)
10.17895/ices.pub.5477WGMG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-363-6
CRR274.pdf
  
2005CRRSpawning and life history information for North Atlantic cod stocks
274
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This synthesis of information on spawning and life history
of North Atlantic cod stocks is an update of ICES
Cooperative Research Report, 205 (CRR 205), published
in 1994, but it has been completely re-written. A comparison
between the current publication and its predecessor
gives a fairly detailed appreciation of the enormous
body of new information which has become available
over the intervening decade.
ICES Cooperative Research Report, 205 was initiated by
the ICES Larval Ecology Working Group to bring together
the existing data on early life stages of cod and
haddock in 1987, using a checklist which was circulated
to Working Group members and participants at the ICES
Symposium on The Early Life History of Fish held in
1988. The ICES Study Group on Cod Stock Fluctuations
(which became the ICES/GLOBEC Working Group on
Cod and Climate Change) also produced syntheses of information
on North Atlantic cod stocks (ICES CM
1990/G:50) and these two sources, plus a large amount
of additional material were published, together with
nearly 800 references and six summary tables.
The main purpose of this update is unchanged: to provide
information for comparative studies of cod biology and
population dynamics. The checklist used to elicit specific
information was only very slightly extended from the
original, to include some additional questions about migration
and adult growth. A copy of the checklist is included
at the end of this introduction.
10.17895/ices.pub.5478WGCCC
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-362-9
CRR276.pdf
  
2005CRRZooplankton monitoring results in the ICES area, Summary Status Report 2003/2004
276
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This is the fifth summary on zooplankton monitoring results in the ICES area. Phytoplankton and tem-perature data for some locations corresponding to the zooplankton sampling sites are also included in this report. The final goal will be the production, in the near future, of a Plankton Status Report with environ-mental variables.
In addition we have improved this year’s report with several new series on the Barents and Baltic Seas, the presentation of annual means of zooplankton abundance in terms of anomalies, and the inclusion of a general overview of SST, phytoplankton colour index, and copepod abundance for the entire North Atlan-tic provided by SAHFOS, which serves to discuss the regional description of the time-series results from the monitoring programmes and also places the data in a basin scale context
10.17895/ices.pub.5479WGZE
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-360-5
CRR277.pdf
  
2005CRRThe intentional introduction of the marine red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus into the Southern Barents Sea
277
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The red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) was intentionally transferred from areas in the
Northern Pacific Ocean to the Russian Barents Sea during the 1960s (1961–1969), to create a
new and valuable commercial resource. A reproductive population in the receptor region was
evident ten years later and from this time the species has continued to spread both north and
east in the Barents Sea and southwards along the coast of Northern Norway. Ecological impacts
upon the native fauna are investigated through, among others, analysis of the diet of the
crab, as molluscs, echinoderms, polychaetes and crustaceans are frequently found as prey
items.
Problems following the invasion of the red king crab are displayed as bycatch of crabs in gillnet-
and longline-fisheries. The crab is regarded as a commercial resource both in Russia and
Norway. Management of the red king crab is undertaken as a joint stock between Norway and
Russia through the Joint Russian-Norwegian Fishery Commission.
10.17895/ices.pub.5481WGMG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-359-9
CRR278.pdf
  
2005CRRDescription of the ICES HAC Standard Data Exchange Format, Version 1.60
278
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The HAC standard format for the exchange of fisheries acoustics raw and edited data was
adopted by the ICES-Fisheries Acoustics Science and Technology Working Group
(WGFAST) in 1999. Since 2000, the ICES HAC Planning Group (PGHAC) has overseen
modifications and additions to the format so that it would evolve to meet the needs of the
international fisheries acoustics community. The present report is based on the original
adopted version and consolidates into one document the various additions, modification,
corrections and clarifications which have been vetted and accepted by the PGHAC in the
intervening years and published in the ICES Annual Reports of the Planning Group on the
HAC data exchange format. Through the work of the PGHAC, many improvements have been
made to the format, including the correction of errors and imprecisions in previously described
tuples, the clarification of rules and definitions for tuple syntax, for allocating tuple numbers
and for software compliance and compatibility, the addition of new tuples containing
information for a new generation of echosounders, for additional auxiliary sensors and for the
complete series of generic tuples for data exchange. The work of the PGHAC and the
evolution of the HAC standard format will continue after the publication of this document and
future modifications will continue to be published in the HAC Planning Group Annual
Reports.
10.17895/ices.pub.5482WGFAST
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-358-2
CRR279.pdf
  
2005CRRProtocol for the Use of an Objective Mesh Gauge for Scientific Purposes
279
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A mesh gauge developed by C. J. W. Westhoff under the auspices of the ICES Comparative Fishing Committee became the standard gauge for research activities in ICES countries in 1962 (ICES, 1962). In 1998/1999 the ICES Working Group on Fishing Technology and Fish Behaviour (WGFTFB) identified the need to refine mesh measurement methodologies to take account of the wider range of twines and netting types used in the netting industry since 1962. To deal with this request ICES adopted Council Resolution 1999/2B02 and established the Study Group on Mesh Measurement Methodology (SGMESH) under the Fisheries Technology Committee.
SGMESH was active from 2000 until 2003 and reported its findings and recommendations in ICES Cooperative Research Report No. 266 (Fonteyne and Galbraith, 2004). The Study Group recommended that all parties concerned should adhere to the specifications defined in the report, whether they are scientists, fisheries inspectors, netting manufacturers, or fishers. As advice derived from selectivity data determines mesh size regulations, it is logical that all stakeholders should use the same system of mesh measurement. The principle of using a longitudinal measuring force to stretch the meshes (as in the ICES Mesh Gauge) was maintained but the measuring force was changed from 4 kgf to 40 N or 100 N, depending on whether the mesh opening is smaller than 55 mm or equal to or larger than 55 mm. Until an instrument capable of making objective measurements, not subject to human influence, with the new measuring forces became available, SGMESH recommended that for scientific purposes the existing ICES gauge with 4 kgf measuring force was to be used and that a conversion formula should be applied to deliver a mesh opening equivalent to that obtained using a force of 100 N.
10.17895/ices.pub.5483WGFTFB
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-357-5
CRR249.pdf
  
2001CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, 2001
249
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The Advisory Committee on Ecosystems (ACE) was created in 2000 as the Council’s official body for the provision of scientific information and advice on the status and outlook for marine ecosystems, and on exploitation of living marine resources in an ecosystem context. ACE will provide a focus for advice that integrates consideration of the marine environment and fisheries in an ecosystem context, such as ecosystem effects of fishing. ACE will be at the forefront of the development of advice on ecosystem management.
ACE provides advice as may be requested by ICES Member Countries, other bodies within ICES, relevant regulatory Commissions, and other organizations.
In handling the requests, ACE draws on the expertise of its own members and on the work of various expert ICES Working Groups and Study Groups. ACE considers the reports of these groups and may request them to carry out specific activities or to provide information on specific topics.
10.17895/ices.pub.5484WGECO
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-415-2
CRR316.pdf
  
2013CRRICES/GLOBEC workshop on long-term variability in southwestern Europe
316
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The Workshop on Long‐term Variability in Southwestern Europe (WKLTVSWE) was
held in Lisbon, Portugal from 13 to 16 February 2007, a joint effort of ICES and
GLOBEC and endorsed by EUR‐OCEANS (http://www.eur‐oceans.org). In 1997,
GLOBEC’s SPACC (Small Pelagic Fish and Climate Change) initiative held a joint
meeting with SCOR Working Group 98 on worldwide, large‐scale fluctuations in
sardine (Sardinops sagax) and anchovy (Engraulis spp.) populations (Schwartzlose et
al., 1999). It was decided then to continue this “global” undertaking with a series of
regional workshops. Previous meetings had focused on the Benguela Current in 2001
(Cury and Shannon, 2004), the Humboldt Current in 2002 (Alheit and Niquen, 2004),
and Japanese waters in 2003. During the 2005 annual meeting of the former ICES
Study Group on Regional Ecology of Small Pelagics (SGRESP) – subsequently
ICES/GLOBEC Working Group on Life Cycle and Ecology of Small Pelagic Fish
(WGLESP) – it was recommended that this series of workshops be continued with a
meeting focusing on the waters surrounding the Iberian Peninsula, including the
western Mediterranean Sea.
A synthesis of the hydrography, oceanography, and biology of southwestern
European waters is presented. The goals of the workshop were to (i) provide a survey
of large‐scale, long‐term changes throughout the ecosystems surrounding the Iberian
Peninsula (are there signals of regime shifts in the region?), (ii) identify apparent
synchronies (teleconnection patterns) with other regions of the North Atlantic or
northern hemisphere, and (iii) gain insight into the causes and mechanisms
underlying the major ecosystem changes, e.g. identify possible links of those changes
in the ecosystems to climate variability. Testing materials were climatic and
oceanographic variables, ecosystem indices (zooplankton and phytoplankton
indices), and population indices of small pelagic (catches and recruitment series) in
addition to climate‐forcing indices at local and worldwide scales.
The time‐series compiled during the workshop were as broad as possible. In all, 73
data time‐series were compiled and classified by type: global climatic and biological
indices. With the objective of identifying and analysing oscillations at multi‐annual
scale in the variability of the time‐series, it was decided to work on three case studies:
Case study 1 − global region, Atlantic Iberian Peninsula; Case study 2 − local region,
Portugal; Case study 3 − local region, Bay of Biscay.
ecosystem monitoring; Fisheries; zooplankton; phytoplankton; climate change; ocean climate10.17895/ices.pub.5485WKLTVSWE
Textde Fátima Borges, M. (Ed.)1017-6219978-87-7482-317-9
CRR317.pdf
  
2013CRRMarine and coastal ecosystem-based risk management handbookHAPISG
317
10/8/2020 1:38 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
Management of any environmental issue requires the application of management measures designed to eliminate, control, mitigate, or compensate for pressures related to the drivers of human activities to avoid potential environmental effects. Management strategies are typically implemented in the form of regulations, policies, programmes, best management practices, standard operating procedures, management targets, and even stewardship and education, to name a few. In practice, environmental management measures target driver-specific pressures to reduce the risk of environmental effects and subsequent impacts on vulnerable ecosystems and environmental services. Particularly in the marine environment, the coastal zone is influenced by many drivers occurring within a very dynamic ecosystem, integrating land-based and marine influences. Already managed by a complex jurisdictional framework, each of these pressures can cause environmental effects individually or in combination with pressures from other drivers. From a simple management perspective, the challenge lies in identifying environmental management priorities that consider the most significant pressures and ecosystem vulnerabilities.
Risk analysis and management are widely used in various management constructs from civil and mechanical engineering to food safety and human health. The World Trade Organization (WTO) has embedded risk analysis in the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, which considers the protection of human, animal, and plant health in products traded internationally. Among the types of risk analysis and management approaches studied, some are based on probabilistic models and others are more qualitative in nature.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) also published a standard on risk management and risk assessment techniques. In this standard, the management of risks is based on identifying clearly the sources of these risks, analysing their consequences, and evaluating management options. Under the lead of a competent authority, the process includes communication and consultation with affected stakeholders as well as review and monitoring. In environmental management, the application of such risk management approaches provides assurance that management measures adequately protect the sustainability of the most vulnerable ecosystems and environmental services. Such a process not only assesses ecosystem risks, but aims to implement management measures and deploy resources to priorities of the highest ecosystem, social, cultural, economic, and policy risks. A key benefit of risk management frameworks and processes is also the identification and implementation of the most effective and efficient management measures based on existing scientific knowledge, legislation, and technologies.
In this handbook, the ISO 31000 standard for risk management and risk assessment techniques is used as the basis for an ecosystem-based, risk management approach. Considered as “events”, environmental effects are at the centre of this process, where the consequences can alter, disrupt, or even degrade ecosystems.
ecosystem-based management; science advice; stakeholder advice; risk assessment; coastal zone management10.17895/ices.pub.5486WGMPCZM
TextCormier, R.; Kannen, A.; Elliott, M.; Hall, P.; and Davies, I. M. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-316-2
CRR318.pdf
  
2013CRRICES Zooplankton Status Report 2010/2011EPDSG
318
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In its Strategic Plan, ICES recognized its role in making
scientific information accessible to the public and to fishery
and environmental assessment groups. During ICES
Annual Science Conference 1999, ICES requested that the
Oceanography Committee working groups develop data
products and summaries that could be provided routinely
to the ICES community. Since that time, the Working
Group on Zooplankton Ecology (WGZE) has produced a
summary report on zooplankton activities in the ICES Area,
based on the time-series obtained from national monitoring
programmes.
This is the ninth summary report of zooplankton
monitoring in the ICES Area. This year’s report includes
twenty-two new survey sites: five in the new Labrador
Basin subregion, fourteen in the Baltic Sea, two in the
Bay of Biscay and western Iberian Shelf, and one in the
western Mediterranean Sea. This report summarizes the
North Atlantic Basin and its major subregions using these
62 zooplankton monitoring sites (Figure 1.1) as well as the
40 Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) standard areas
(Figure 1.2).
Although this report follows previous reports in its general
structure and analysis, new standardized data components
and graphical visualizations have been added. Each site
report begins with a standard figure series demonstrating
the seasonal cycles of zooplankton, chlorophyll, and
temperature at that site. Multivariate figures then
provide a quick overview of zooplankton interactions
and/or synchrony with other cosampled biological and
hydrographic variables available for the site. Finally, a
long-term assessment of each monitoring area is made
using a 100-year record of sea surface temperature data,
a 50-year record of surface windspeed data, and up to 60
years of CPR zooplankton data (when available near that
site). The methods and data sources used for this report
are summarized in Section 2.
zooplankton; geographic distribution; climate change; ecosystem monitoring10.17895/ices.pub.5487WGZE
TextO´Brien, T. D.; Wiebe, P. H.; and Falkenhaug, T. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-315-5
CRR319.pdf
  
2013CRRChemical aspects of ocean acidification monitoring in the ICES marine areaHAPISG
319
10/8/2020 1:10 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
It is estimated that oceans absorb approximately a quarter of the total anthropogenic
releases of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere each year. This is leading to acidification
of the oceans, which has already been observed through direct measurements. These
changes in the ocean carbon system are a cause for concern for the future health of
marine ecosystems. A coordinated ocean acidification (OA) monitoring programme is
needed that integrates physical, biogeochemical, and biological measurements to
concurrently observe the variability and trends in ocean carbon chemistry and evaluate
species and ecosystems response to these changes. This report arises from an
OSPAR request to ICES for advice on this matter. It considers the approach and tools
available to achieve coordinated monitoring of changes in the carbon system in the
ICES marine area, i.e. the Northeast Atlantic and Baltic Sea.
An objective is to measure long-term changes in pH, carbonate parameters, and saturation
states (Ωaragonite and Ωcalcite) in support of assessment of risks to and impacts
on marine ecosystems. Painstaking and sensitive methods are necessary to
measure changes in the ocean carbonate system over a long period of time (decades)
against a background of high natural variability. Information on this variability is
detailed in this report. Monitoring needs to start with a research phase, which assesses
the scale of short-term variability in different regions. Measurements need to cover
a range of waters from estuaries and coastal waters, shelf seas and ocean-mode waters,
and abyssal waters where sensitive ecosystems may be present. Emphasis
should be placed on key areas at risk, for example high latitudes where ocean acidification
will be most rapid, and areas identified as containing ecosystems and habitats
that may be vulnerable, e.g. cold-water corals. In nearshore environments, increased
production resulting from eutrophication has probably driven larger changes in acidity
than CO2 uptake. Although the cause is different, data are equally required from
these regions to assess potential ecosystem impact.
Analytical methods to support coordinated monitoring are in place. Monitoring of at
least two of the four carbonate system parameters (dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC),
total alkalinity (TA), pCO2, and pH) alongside other parameters is sufficient to describe
the carbon system. There are technological limitations to direct measurement
of pH at present, which is likely to change in the next five years. DIC and TA are the
most widely measured parameters in discrete samples. The parameter pCO2 is the
most common measurement made underway. Widely accepted procedures are available,
although further development of quality assurance tools (e.g. proficiency testing)
is required.
Monitoring is foreseen as a combination of low-frequency, repeat, ship-based surveys
enabling collection of extended high quality datasets on horizontal and vertical
scales, and high-frequency autonomous measurements for more limited parameter
sets using instrumentation deployed on ships of opportunity and moorings. Monitoring
of ocean acidification can build on existing activities summarized in this report,
e.g. OSPAR eutrophication monitoring. This would be a cost-effective approach to
monitoring, although a commitment to sustained funding is required.
ocean climate; ocean acidification; ecosystem monitoring; OSPAR; carbon chemistry10.17895/ices.pub.5488MCWG
TextHydes, D. J.; McGovern, E.; and Walsham, P. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-314-8
CRR320.pdf
  
2013CRRIntegrated coastal-zone risk management
320
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Ecosystem-based management (EBM) is generally seen as the means to achieve sustainable development. There has been a decade or so of discussions on the need to incorporate the ecosystem into the management of human activities to ensure sustainability of goods and services for future generations (Christensen et al., 1996). Initially, EBM recognized the interconnectedness between human societies and ecosystems. Over time, however, the approach also considered the importance of a sound understanding of ecosystem components and processes. To deal with uncertainty, the precautionary approach and adaptive management principles were added to the concepts and approaches to guide management decisions (McLeod et al., 2005). Given the complexity and the variety of human activities within the ecosystem, integrated management processes were deemed necessary as a means to engage jurisdictions and stakeholders (UNESCO, 2006).
In support of these new concepts and management processes, various ecosystem research initiatives focused attention on enhancing understanding of ecosystem components and processes and their interactions. Biodiversity and ecological criteria were developed (UNESCO, 2009; DFO, 2004a, 2005a, 2006, 2009a; Wilkinson et al., 2009), and extensive work on the modelling of ecological processes and human interactions was undertaken (ICES, 2007, 2008, 2009). In parallel, integrated planning and management processes spawned the need for indicators (DEDUCE, 2002; ICES, 2008, 2009). In refining management goals, and as a means to guide reporting on the state of ecosystem health, objectives were set from both ecological and socio-economic perspectives (OSPAR, 2007; DFO, 2007; US CEQ, 2009; ICES, 2010a). Among the various objective-setting initiatives, the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU, 2008) descriptors of good environmental status (GES; EU, 2010) can be interpreted as a comprehensive list of marine ecosystem-based management objectives that combine ecosystem conservation with the need to sustain ecosystem goods and services, and that are primarily applicable on regional geographic scales. Similarly, the recognition of the inherent weaknesses of project-scale environmental effect assessments resulted in the development of strategic environmental assessment approaches that broaden the geographic scale and scope of the impact assessment process to include the ecosystem context and all relevant human activities in the assessed area (EU, 2001; Canada, 2010). EBM concepts and approaches have been incorporated in both top–down integrated management and bottom–up environmental assessment initiatives.
ecosystem-based management; ecosystem monitoring; coastal zone management; science advice; stakeholder advice; marine spatial planning10.17895/ices.pub.5489WGICZM
TextCormier, R.; Davies, I. N.; and Kannen, A.  (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-313-1
CRR323.pdf
  
2015CRRAlien Species Alert: Ensis directus. Current status of invasions by the marine bivalve Ensis directus HAPISG
323
10/8/2020 12:44 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
The North American bivalve mollusc Ensis directus (Conrad, 1843) (Bivalvia, Pharidae)
is native to the Northwest Atlantic coasts from southern Labrador to northern Florida
(Bousfield, 1960; Theroux and Wigley, 1983; Swennen et al., 1985; Abbott and Morris,
2001; Turgeon et al., 2009; Vierna et al., 2013). This species has been introduced outside
its native range, with the first confirmed record from the German Bight in 1979 (Cosel
et al., 1982). Thereafter, a subsequent secondary range expansion took place, and the
species is presently known to occur from Spain to Norway, including the UK (e.g. Mühlenhardt-
Siegel et al., 1983; Essink, 1985, 1986; Kerckhof and Dumoulin; 1987, Luczak
et al., 1993; Rasmussen, 1996; Brattegard and Holthe, 1997; Eno et al., 1997; Severijns,
2000, 2002, 2004; Wolff, 2005; Dauvin et al., 2007; Houziaux et al., 2011; Arias and
Anadon, 2012; Dannheim and Rumohr, 2012; Witbaard et al., 2013) and in the western
Baltic (Gürs et al., 1993). The most recent expansion was to the Bay of Biscay (Arias and
Anadon, 2012) from where it may be expected to spread further.
E. directus has all the characteristics of a successful “r” strategist invader, including
high reproductive capacity, short generation time, and rapid growth. Its expansion is
principally due to natural dispersal. It usually occurs in clusters and has wide environmental
tolerances (Dannheim and Rumohr, 2012). Moreover, its native predators (e.g.
the snail Polinices heros and the nemertean Cerebratulus lacteus) are absent in Europe
(Cosel, 2009). Although E. directus is common in its native range, it is more abundant
in its introduced range. Further, its exceptional colonization success in Europe is likely
related to its use of underutilized tidal habitats that are characterized by exposure to
physical disturbance as a consequence of wave action and strong tidal currents. It appears
that E. directus is one of the few larger benthic invertebrates able to tolerate the
unstable sands in the tidal zone (Dekker and Beukema, 2012).
mollusca; mollusc; bivalve; non-native; invasive species; ecology; geographic distribution10.17895/ices.pub.5491WGITMO
TextGollasch, S.; Kerckhof, F.; Craeymeersch, J.; Goulletquer, P.;  Jensen, K.; Jelmert, A.; and  Minchin, D.1017-6195978-87-7482-157-1
CRR324.pdf
  
2015CRRIdentification guide for cephalopod paralarvae from the Mediterranean Sea
324
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Cephalopods are key components of marine trophic webs, where they constitute major
food resources for a large variety of predators including fish, other cephalopods, marine
mammals, and seabirds (e.g. Clarke, 1996; Piatkowski et al., 2001; Cherel et al.,
2009). Cephalopods are, in turn, voracious predators of fish and crustaceans (Boyle and
Rodhouse, 2005). Octopuses, squid, and cuttlefish are also important living marine resources,
maintaining relevant fisheries around the world (FAO, 2012). Despite their
economic and ecological importance, the number of studies on these molluscs, until
relatively recently, has been small compared to other taxonomic groups such as fish,
crustaceans, or marine mammals (Piatkowski et al., 2001). The lack of knowledge is
even worse in the case of larval stages, which have been little studied worldwide and
represent, without doubt, a challenge for future studies on cephalopods. The difficulties
in sampling (low abundance and patchy distribution), the uncertainties of species
identification, and problems related to their maintenance in captivity are major limitations
to those studies (Vecchione, 1987; Boyle and Rodhouse, 2005). The taxonomy is
probably the biggest obstacle to overcome, since the identification of virtually all larval
and juvenile stages of cephalopods has been, and still is in many cases, confusing and
problematic (Sweeney et al., 1992).
Cephalopod hatchings rarely have specializations and do not undergo metamorphosis,
so they are not true larvae (Young and Harman, 1988; Sweeney et al., 1992). However,
there are significant changes in certain body features during the early developmental
stages that complicate the identification of these phases compared to more advanced
stages and subadults of their own species (Figure 1.1). Therefore, the early stages of
post-embryonic development of some groups have been called paralarvae (Young and
Harman, 1988).
Despite the publication of a manual for the identification of cephalopod paralarvae and
juveniles in the early 1990s (Sweeney et al., 1992), larval forms of many species and
some whole families are currently still unknown. Pending future improvements on
taxonomic aspects, most of the existing studies have focused on the effects of oceanographic
parameters on the distribution of paralarvae in different areas of the world’s
oceans (e.g. Vecchione et al., 2001; Diekmann and Piatkowski, 2002; Zeidberg and
Hamner, 2002; González et al., 2005; Martins and Pérez, 2006; Moreno et al., 2009; Otero
et al., 2009). To a lesser extent, studies exist on the taxonomy and systematics (Sweeney
et al., 1992; Nixon and Mangold, 1998; Piatkowski, 1998; Boletzky, 2003), aspects related
to the maintenance in captivity (Villanueva, 1995; Villanueva and Bustamante, 2006),
or growth during the early stages of larval development (Villanueva et al., 2007).
cephalopod; larvae; larval; paralarvae; ecology; taxonomy10.17895/ices.pub.5492N/A
TextZaragoza, N.; Quetglas, A.; and Moreno, A. 1017-6195978-87-7482-156-4
CRR325.pdf
  
2015CRRCephalopod biology and fisheries in Europe: II. Species Accounts.EPDSG
325
10/7/2020 1:43 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
This report summarizes current knowledge on the identification, geographical distribution,
nomenclature, taxonomy, life history, ecology, and exploitation of cephalopod
species of interest to fisheries in European waters. The 17 species range from those
currently of significant fishery importance and targeted in at least part of their range
(Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris, Loligo forbesii), through those regularly
landed as bycatch (Todaropsis eblanae, Illex coindetii, Eledone cirrhosa, Eledone moschata,
Todarodes sagittatus), to those of minor and/or local importance (Alloteuthis subulata, Alloteuthis
media, Sepia orbignyana, Sepia elegans, Sepietta oweniana, Sepiola atlantica, Ommastrephes
bartramii, Gonatus fabricii). The species reviews aim to provide a concise yet
comprehensive account of each, while remaining distinctive from previous and recent
accounts
cephalopod; Fisheries; stock assesment; ecology; geographic distribution; taxonomy10.17895/ices.pub.5493WGCEPH
TextJereb, P.; Allcock, A. L.; Lefkaditou, E.;  Piatkowski, U.; Hastie, L. C.; and Pierce, G. J. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-155-7
CRR326.pdf
  
2015CRRCalibration of acoustic instrumentsEOSG
326
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Acoustic sampling has long been a standard survey tool for estimating the abundance
and distribution of fish, zooplankton, and their seabed habitat (Kimura, 1929; Sund,
1935; Holliday, 1972a; Nielson et al., 1980). Typically, acoustic surveys are conducted
using multifrequency echosounders that transmit sound pulses down beneath the ship
and receive echoes from animals and the seabed in the path of the sound waves
(Simmonds and MacLennan, 2005). Generally, for surveys of animals, the backscatter
signal is normalized to the range-dependent observational volume yielding the volume
backscattering coefficient, which provides indications of the target type and behaviour.
Objects scatter sound if their product of mass density and sound speed is different from
that of the surrounding medium. A fish with a swimbladder has a large acoustic-impedance
contrast (Foote, 1980), and thus has a large reflecting area, backscattering cross-section.
Plankton, e.g. krill and salps, generally have much lower acoustic-impedance contrasts,
but can produce large volume backscatter ing coefficients when they are aggregated
in large densities (Hewitt and Demer, 1991, 2000). Under certain conditions, the
summed and averaged volume backscatter ing coefficients are linearly related to the
density of the fish or plankton aggregations that contributed to the echoes (Foote,
1983a). The number density can be estimated by dividing the integrated volume backscattering
coefficient from an aggregation of target species by the average backscattering
cross section from a representative animal (Ehrenberg and Lytle, 1972). An estimate of
animal abundance is then obtained by multiplying the average estimated fish density
and the survey area.
Increasingly, multifrequency echosounder surveys are being augmented with samples
from other acoustic instruments such as multibeam echosounders (Gerlotto et al., 1999;
Simmonds et al., 1999; Berger et al., 2009; Colbo et al., 2014), multibeam imaging sonars
(Korneliussen et al., 2009; Patel and Ona, 2009), and long-range scanning sonars
(Bernasconi et al., 2009; Nishimori et al., 2009; Stockwell et al., 2013)(Figure 1.1). Use of
these instruments provides information on many more aspects of the biotic and abiotic
environment, e.g. bathymetry, seabed classification (Humborstad et al., 2004; Cutter
and Demer, 2014), oceanographic fronts (Wade and Heywood, 2001), mixed-layer
depths, anoxic regions, internal waves (Lavery et al., 2010a), turbulence (Stanton et al.,
1994), currents, and methane seeps, all contributing to a broader ecosystem perspective
(Demer et al., 2009a). In each case, the quantitative use of the data requires that the
acoustic instrument is calibrated.
Fisheries; acoustic instrument; calibration; echosounder; sonar; ecosystem monitoring; survey; acoustic cameras; Doppler10.17895/ices.pub.5494WGFAST
TextDemer, D. A.; Berger, L.; Bernasconi, M.; Bethke, E.;  Boswell, K.; Chu, D.; Domokos, R. et al.1017-6195978-87-7482-167-0
CRR322.pdf
  
2014CRRHistory of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1978–2007ACFM
322
11/24/2020 10:26 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
When I took on the task of assembling
the history of the ICES Advisory
Committee on Fishery
Management (ACFM), I had the rather naïve perception that it would be easy, with
the help of the other former ACFM Chairs, to describe the development of ICES advice
from the last year of the Liaison Committee (1977) to the arrival of the Advisory
Committee (ACOM) in 2008.
Having studied material provided by other former Chairs and Secretaries of ACFM,
together with other internal material from ICES, it became apparent that instead of
giving a year-by-year description of what happened at ACFM, it would be more important
to make use of the experiences gained during the 30 years that ACFM was
responsible for advice on fisheries. This would contribute to the ever-ongoing discussions
on the role of scientific advice in fishery management. These discussions are
particularly vibrant at the present time. These 30 years cover a time wherein there
were major developments in international law and instruments1, and biodiversity
protection came to the fore after the Rio Summit of 1992.
Fisheries; fishery management; stock assesment; science advice10.17895/ices.pub.5490WGFS
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-142-7
CRR327.pdf
  
2015CRRMarine Spatial Planning Quality Management SystemHAPISG
327
10/7/2020 1:41 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
Human activities in marine areas are increasing in number and intensity, with patterns
of sea use changing as a result of political, economic, and societal developments.
European seas can be seen as a hotspot’ of this development. For example, “The North
Sea has some of the busiest shipping lanes in the world and maritime transport continues to
increase. Construction activities have also been increasing…, with more coastal structures and
wind farms being built and operated, and more tourist traffic” (OSPAR, 2010). The EU Blue
Growth strategy (EU, 2012) assumes that Europe’s Blue Economy represents 5.4 million
jobs and a gross added value of just under €500 billion per year and that 75% of
Europe’s external trade and 37% of trade within the EU is seaborne. Marine areas
therefore have become contested, but at the same time politically recognized areas,
with emerging conflicts rooted not only in different interests, but also different
perceptions, values, and attitudes of diverse actors (Kannen, 2012).
These on marine or maritime spatial planning policy contexts, like the Integrated
Maritime Policy (EU, 2007) and policy implementation tools such as the framework
directive for Maritime Spatial Planning (EU, 2014), reflect the need to extend planning
activities and regulations to areas further offshore. This is defined by the EU as
“Maritime spatial planning is about planning and regulating all human uses of the sea, while
protecting marine ecosystems.” Therefore, while the maritime spatial planning (MSP)
directive, in its main objectives, is oriented towards economic goals, the EU Marine
Strategy Framework Directive (EU, 2008) extends environmental policies further
offshore, aiming to establish ecosystem approaches to the management of human
activities (Rice et al., 2005).
marine spatial planning; stakeholder advice; science advice10.17895/ices.pub.5495WGMPCZM
TextCormier, R.; Kannen, A.; Elliot, M.; and Hall, P.1017-6195978-87-7482-171-7
CRR328.pdf
  
2015CRRBest practices for the provision of prior information for Bayesian stock assessment
328
11/24/2020 10:25 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This manual represents a review of the potential sources and methods to be applied
when providing prior information to Bayesian stock assessments and marine risk analysis.
The manual is compiled as a product of the EC Framework 7 ECOKNOWS project
(www.ecoknows.eu).
The manual begins by introducing the basic concepts of Bayesian inference and the role
of prior information in the inference. Bayesian analysis is a mathematical formalization
of a sequential learning process in a probabilistic rationale. Prior information (also
called ”prior knowledge”, ”prior belief”, or simply a ”prior”) refers to any existing relevant
knowledge available before the analysis of the newest observations (data) and
the information included in them. Prior information is input to a Bayesian statistical
analysis in the form of a probability distribution (a prior distribution) that summarizes
beliefs about the parameter concerned in terms of relative support for different values.
Apart from specifying probable parameter values, prior information also defines how
the data are related to the phenomenon being studied, i.e. the model structure. Prior
information should reflect the different degrees of knowledge about different parameters
and the interrelationships among them.
Different sources of prior information are described as well as the particularities important
for their successful utilization. The sources of prior information are classified
into four main categories: (i) primary data, (ii) literature, (iii) online databases, and (iv)
experts. This categorization is somewhat synthetic, but is useful for structuring the process
of deriving a prior and for acknowledging different aspects of it.
stock assesment; Fisheries; bayesian; statistical analysis10.17895/ices.pub.5496SIMWG
TextRomakkaniemi, A. (Ed.)1017-6195978-87-7482-174-8
CRR169.pdf
  
1990CRRReport of the sprat biology workshop. Bergen, 4-7 november 1986
169
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At its 1983 meeting the Industrial Fisheries Working Group identified the
need for a workshop to be held to consider stock separation and other
biological problems relating to the assessment of the sprat stocks in the
North Sea and adjacent areas. The essential problems were addressed in
discussion papers presented at the 1984 and 1985 ICES Statutory Meetings
(Bailey 1984,1985), and in 1985 the Pelagic Fish Committee put forward a
recommendation that a "sprat biology workshop" should be held late in 1986.
10.17895/ices.pub.5497WGFTFB
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-484-8
CRR330.pdf
  
2016CRREffects of extraction of marine sediments on the marine environment 2005-2011HAPISG
330
10/7/2020 12:21 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
Each year across the ICES Area, approximately 100 million m³ of sand and gravel are
extracted from licensed areas of the seabed (as described in Chapter 2) as a source of
aggregate for the construction industry, either to supplement land‐based sources or as
a source of material for coastal beach nourishment. As land-use constraints and resource
exhaustion are tending to restrict the extraction of aggregate from terrestrial
sources, attention continues to be focused on the importance of seabed resources to
satisfy part of the demand for aggregates. The seabed is also recognized as the only
viable source of material for beach renourishment in the face of coastal erosion. However,
the benefits of using marine sand and gravel must be balanced with the potentially
significant environmental impacts. In recognition of this, the exploitation of marine
resources is regulated in most ICES Member Countries by national and international
mineral policies, subject to environmental safeguards.
Between 1998 and 2002 (ICES WGEXT annual reports), the amount of marine aggregate
extraction was approximately 53 million m³ year–1 in ICES Member Countries, but this
amount has nearly doubled in recent years. This rise reflects the increasing constraints
on land‐based extraction. Public attention to the effects of marine sand and gravel extraction
both on the environment and on fisheries has grown in line with this expansion
of effort. However, the resolution of issues related to these effects is more difficult in
the marine environment than on land because of the relative inaccessibility of sites, the
general paucity of site‐specific data on the structure and functional role of the habitat
and biota associated with sand and gravel deposits, and problems in quantifying the
performance of local fisheries. Additional drivers emphasize the impacts of marine aggregate
extraction at the international level. In particular, there is an increasing focus
on the conservation of marine biodiversity, following the Rio Earth Summit, and on
the comprehensive protection of marine habitats (under the EU Habitats Directive)
through international management initiatives under OSPAR, HELCOM, and the EU
Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The MSFD sets out 11 high-level descriptors
with which to describe ”good environmental status”. Of particular relevance
to the ICES Working Group on the Effects of Extraction of Marine Sediments on the
Marine Ecosystem (WGEXT) are descriptors 6 (seafloor integrity) and 11 (introduction
of energy, including underwater noise); however, descriptors 1 (biodiversity), 4 (foodwebs),
and 7 (hydrographical conditions) also require consideration. OSPAR, HELCOM,
and ICES are promoting transnational cooperation in developing the ecosystembased
marine management. National and international emphasis has been directed toward
the development of ecosystem-based management, including evaluations of the
scope for “cumulative” or “in‐combination” impacts.
sediment; marine aggregate extraction10.17895/ices.pub.5498WGEXT
TextWalker; R.; Bokuniewicz, H.;  Carlin, D.; Cato, I.; Dijkshoorn, C.; De Backer, A.; van Dalfsen, J. et al.1017-6195978-87-7482-179-3
CRR062.pdf
  
1977CRRReport of the ad hoc meeting on the provision of advice on the biological basis for fisheries management
62
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In response to a resolution (C.Res.1975/2:3) passed by the
Council at its 63rd Statutory Meeting (see Appendix 1), an ad
hoc meeting on the biological basis for fisheries management was
held in Charlottenlund during 5-9 January, 1976. The participants
are listed in Appendix 2.
10.17895/ices.pub.5499N/A
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-515-9
CRR205.pdf
  
1994CRRSpawning and life history information for North Atlantic cod stocks
205
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This synthesis of information on spawning and life
history of North Atlantic cod stocks originated from two
separate initiatives, which were subsequently merged.
The ICES Larval Ecology Working (which became the
Recruitment Processes Working Group) began to bring
together the existing data on early life stages of cod and
haddock in 1987, using a checklist which was circulated
to Working Group members and participants at the ICES
Early Life History Symposium in 1988. The ICES Study
Group on Cod Stock Fluctuations (which became the
ICES/GLOBEC Working Group on Cod and Climate
Change) produced syntheses of Atlantic cod stocks as
appendices III and IV of its report in 1990 (ICES CM
1990/G:SO). The resultant information and a large
amount of additional material, produced by over thirty
contributors, whose names are given in Table 1, has been
edited and some of the information has been extracted
into Tables as a summary. A single reference list has
been prepared, but the task of indexing this list by key
words is not complete.
10.17895/ices.pub.5500WGCCC
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-467-1
CRR089.pdf
  
1979CRRReview of Baltic salmon research
89
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The members of the Baltic Salmon Working Group would like to acknowledge
most gratefully the assistance of non-members who have contributed a
great deal of valuable information and critical comments to the Synopsis.
In particular, the Working Group is indebted to Professor A Lindroth
and Mr K Pyefinch who took great interest in the project, and whose
helpful comments and criticism have been indispensable. Professor
Lindroth has most kindly undertaken a factual scrutiny of the text, but
emphasises that he assumes no responsibility for its general composition,
which he would have preferred to have been in a different and more
logical way than the outline set up for FAO synopses. Mr Pyefinch is
sincerely thanked for his comments and suggestions, which were particularly
aimed at improving the text for the English-speaking reader.
10.17895/ices.pub.5501WGBAST
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-508-1
CRR122.pdf
  
1983CRRReport on the Fourth Dialogue Meeting, 8 October 1982
122
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The meeting was chaired by the President of the Council, Professor
G Hempel. The General Secretary acted as Rapporteur.
As for the previous three meetings (Coop.Res.Rep., Nos. 106 and 113),
the meeting was attended by scientists and administrators from member
countries. There were also participants representing the fishing
industry in some member countries. FAO, the International Baltic Sea
Fishery Commission, and the Commission of the European Economic
Communities were also represented. A List of Participants is given
in Annex 1.
2. The Chairman welcomed the participants and briefly outlined, what
had been achieved by the three previous meetings. What had started
largely as an explanation by the biologists of their methods and
working procedures, had gradually become a dialogue, which for each
meeting had been more specific. The two groups of scientists and
managers no¥ had a better understanding of each others' "language"
and the constraints under which they worked. This was one major
achievement. The other was the effect of the meetings on the work
and the reports of ACFM. One example is the grouping by ACFM of the
fish stocks according to the possibility for carrying out assessments
and formulating advice in the form of options (see Coop.Res.Rep.,
No.113, p.1-2)
3. The Chairman then proposed the Agenda for the present meeting, which
is given in Annex 2, and the meeting agreed,
10.17895/ices.pub.5502AFWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-500-5
CRR198.pdf
  
1994CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee of the Marine Environment, 1993
198
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This report presents a summary of the deliberations of the ICES Advisory Committee on the Marine
Environment (ACME) at its first meeting in June 1993. The report addresses questions posed to ICES by
the regulatory commissions, specifically the Oslo and Paris Commissions and the Helsinki Commission, as
well as other issues considered relevant by the ACME. These deliberations were based on the most recent
reports of the following ICES working and study groups:
10.17895/ices.pub.5503BEWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-468-8
CRR208.pdf
  
1995CRRResults of the 1990/1991 baseline study of contaminants in North Sea sediments
208
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One of the main tasks of the North Sea Task Force
(NSTF) was the preparation of the North Sea Quality
Status Report (QSR), which was published in early
1994. At their joint meeting in June 1991, the Oslo and
Paris Commissions (OSPARCOM) agreed that monitoring
data to be fed into the preparation of the QSR would
be considered in two different data sets:
10.17895/ices.pub.5504N/A
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-464-0
CRR333.pdf
  
2016CRRMultidisciplinary perspectives in the use (and misuse) of science and scientific advice in marine spatial planningHAPISG
333
10/7/2020 12:11 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
It is recognized that a key goal of an ecosystem‐based management approach (EBM) is
sustainable use of natural resources that provide ecosystem goods and services
(Cooper, 2013). In a marine context, EBM considers marine ecosystem health in the
management of human activities that affect marine and coastal areas. The intent is that
ecosystem components that are critical to maintaining ecosystem structure, function,
environmental quality, and ecosystem services are maintained at appropriate temporal
and spatial scales. This will ensure that these properties and functions are sustainable
over time. Thus, impacts of activities on ecosystem components need to be maintained
at levels that ensure this sustainability.
Use of marine space has increased significantly as a result of new demands for space,
such as renewable ocean energy extraction including wind farms (driven by climatechange
policies) and aquaculture (for food security). These increasingly compete with
existing demands such as shipping and other maritime industries. This increased competition
for space (e.g. between offshore wind farms, fisheries, and shipping) has resulted
in increased conflict among maritime users, but also conflicting policy targets/
goals (e.g. between environmental and economic policies).
Anticipating the future consequences of these pressures and drivers of change on marine
life/resources and of adaptation and mitigation measures (such as the introduction
of new technologies and structures, new ballast‐water practices, ocean and offshore
wind energy devices, and new fishing strategies) is a prerequisite to informing the development
and implementation of forthcoming strategies, policies, and regulations
such as marine spatial planning, the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD),
the IMO Ballast Water Management Convention, and the EU Integrated Maritime Policy
(IMP).
marine spatial planning; stakeholder advice; science advice; ecosystem-based management10.17895/ices.pub.5505WGMPCZM
TextCormier; R.; Kannen, A.; Austen, M.; and Therriault, T. (Eds.)1017-6195978‐87‐7482‐190‐8
CRR074.pdf
  
1978CRRThe biology, distribution and state of exploitation of shared stocks in the North Sea area
74
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The world fisheries are at present in a difficult transitional stage.
The principle of fishery resources as a common property in the international
sense has largely been abandoned and a regime is emerging
based on the concepts of the proposed new Law of the Sea. The major
part of the problems of the transition to the new regime has been the
subject of elaborate negotiations in the various sessions of the UN
Conference on the Law of the Sea. There appears, however, to be one
set of problems which has not been dealt with extensively in these
negotiations, and this relates to the fact that in many areas of the
world and perhaps particularly in the North-East Atlantic, the distribution
of major fish stocks covers more than one zone of extended
fisheries jurisdiction. These resources shared between several zones
of extended fisheries jurisdiction or between such zones and international
waters represent an entirely new problem in international
fisheries work: to allocate between various national parties the
"ownership-rights" and management responsibilities for various parts
of a fish stock or unit resource
10.17895/ices.pub.5506HAWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-511-1
CRR086.pdf
  
1979CRRThe biology, distribution and state of exploitation of fish stocks in the ICES area. Part 2
86
11/11/2020 3:14 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
At its meeting in November 1976 NEAFC asked ICES to submit, as soon as
possible, information on the biology of and fisheries on stocks shared
between zones of extended fisheries jurisdiction.
In view of the magnitude of the work involved, and the urgency with which
some of the data was required, the Liaison Committee of ICES decided to
submit initially a report on the major stocks in the North Sea. This was
done (Coop.Res.Rep., No.74, 1978) in 1977, with an undertaking that a
subsequent report dealing with the other stocks in the Convention area
would be prepared, and submitted, as quickly as possible.
This report, which fulfills that undertaking, was prepared by the Advisory
Committee on Fishery Management in collaboration with various ICES
Assessment Working Groups, which were asked at their 1978 meetings to
review the drafts they had previously prepared, in the light of any new
information available. Because fisheries research by ICES member countries
has, in general, been more intensive in the North Sea than in other areas
the data available for the stocks dealt with in this report are less
comprehensive in many cases, than for those in the preceding one. They are,
however, the best relevant data available, and are presented here in the
hope that they will be of some help to the Commission and the other bodies
concerned with management and allocation problems in the areas concerned.
In the Introduction to the preceding report on this subject the Liaison
Committee commented on the general principles and problems in the management
of shared stocks under the new regime of extended zones of fisheries
jurisdiction. ACFM would wish to endorse these comments and to recommend
that they be read in relation to this report by anyone who has not already
done so.
10.17895/ices.pub.5507WGMEGS
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-509-8
CRR130.pdf
  
1984CRRGuidelines for implementing the ICES code of practice concerning introductions and transfers of marine species
130
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This document has been prepared and reviewed by the Working Group on
the Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms. It attempts to
clarify information relevant to the revised Code of Practice concerning
introduced species as approved by the Council at its 1979 Statutory
Meeting.
Included are the following sections:
I. The revised Code of Practice as approved by the Council
at its 1979 Statutory Meeting;
II. A list of definitions for the application of the Code;
III. An augmentation and explanation of each of the sections
of the Code, as appropriate
10.17895/ices.pub.5508WGITMO
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-496-1
CRR054.pdf
  
1976CRRA review of O-Group surveys in the Iceland-East Greenland area in the years 1970-1975
54
11/11/2020 4:44 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
Since 1965 annual attempts have been made to estimate the abundance of late
summer and early autumn fish fry in the Barents Sea and adjacent waters.
The project has involved scientists and vessels of a number of nationalities.
Following the very promising results from these surveys it was decided at
the Statutory Meeting of the International Council for the Exploration of the
Sea in the autumn of 1969 to initiate a similar project in the waters around
Iceland, in the Irminger Sea and off East Greenland to see how the Barents
Sea methods worked in these areas. Investigations of this kind require that
the survey area is covered in as short a time as possible and multinational
participation was obtained and arranged through the Council.
10.17895/ices.pub.5509N/A
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-517-3
CRR073.pdf
  
1978CRRReports of the Liaison Committee of ICES, November 1976 to October 1977
73
11/11/2020 3:52 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
The Liaison Committee met on 9 October 1976 with all members, except
Mr M Lishev, present, and it was agreed to submit the following report to
the Commission concerning herring stocks.
During the 64th Statutory Meeting of ICES the Herring Assessment Working
Group for the Area South of 62°N met on the 5 and 6 October 1976 to
update as far as this was necessary, or practicable, the advice given to
the Liaison Committee in February 1976 on assessments of the North Sea,
Celtic Sea, Division VIa, and Irish Sea herring stocks and of the North
Sea and Division IIIa sprat stocks. In addition, the Working Group was
asked to consider the data available on the by-catches of herring in
the North Sea fisheries for sprat, sandeels, and Norway pout.
10.17895/ices.pub.5510HAWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-512-8
CRR334.pdf
  
2017CRRStatus of introductions of non-indigenous marine species in the North Atlantic and adjacent waters 2003-2007HAPISG
334
10/7/2020 12:00 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
Non-indigenous species do not recognize political boundaries, yet they cause ecological and economic damage and may affect human health.
non-native; invasive; pathogen; phytoplankton; plants; invertebrate10.17895/ices.pub.1977WGITMO
TextPederson, J. A.; Gollasch, S.; Laing, I.; McCollin, T.; Miossec, L.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A.;  Wallentinus, I.; and Werner, M.1017-6195978-87-7482-194-6
CRR335.pdf
  
2017CRRAlien Species Alert: Didemnum vexillum Kott, 2002: Invasion, impact, and controlHAPISG
335
10/7/2020 11:51 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This publication aims to increase awareness of D. vexillum, with
a focus on identification, natural history, current global distribution, potential impacts, and prospects for management and control where introductions occur.
invasive; invasive species; tunicate10.17895/ices.pub.2138WGITMO
TextMcKenzie, C. H.; Reid, V.; Lambert, G.; Matheson, K.; Minchin, D.; Pederson, J.; Brown, L.; Curd, A.; Gollasch, S.; Goulletquer, P.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A.; Simard, N.; and Therriault, T. W. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-197-7
CRR336.pdf
  
2017CRR2016 USA–Norway EK80 Workshop Report:  Evaluation of a wideband echosounder for fisheries and marine ecosystem scienceEOSG
336
10/7/2020 11:40 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Underwater acoustic technologies have improved the accuracy, precision, efficiency,
and timeliness of scientific information used for the conservation and management of
living marine resources. For more than a decade, the Simrad–Kongsberg (Simrad)
EK60 echosounder has been a worldwide standard for providing estimates of fish biomass
and distributions, conducting ecosystem surveys, and observing the behaviours
of aquatic organisms and their associations with oceanographic and seabed environments.
However, EK60 has been recently superseded by the more advanced Simrad
EK80 echosounder. Components of EK60 general purpose transceivers (GPTs) are no
longer commercially available, and ER60 software has been replaced by EK80 software.
For transitional purposes, EK80 software can be used with EK60 GPTs and EK80 wideband
transceivers (WBTs), or combinations of the two.
To facilitate a rapid and successful transition to the operational use of EK80, it is necessary
to ensure the continuation of accurate and precise measures for time-series used
in stock assessments and marine ecosystem research. Therefore, scientists at the 2015
ICES Symposium on Marine Ecosystem Acoustics agreed to collaboratively conduct a
series of laboratory and field experiments to characterize and compare the features and
functions of EK60 and EK80.
Fisheries; EK60; EK80; ecosystem monitoring10.17895/ices.pub.2318WGFAST
TextDemer, D. A.; Andersen, L. N.; Bassett, C.; Berger, L.; Chu, D.; Condiotty, J.; Cutter, G. R.; Hutton, B.; Korneliussen, R.; Le Bouffant, N.; Macaulay, G.; Michaels, W. L.; Murfin, D.; Pobitzer, A.; Renfree, J. S.; Sessions, T. S.; Stierhoff, K. L.; and T1017-6195978-87-7482-199-1
CRR085.pdf
  
1979CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1978
85
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ICES has for some time been consider.ing what changes were necessary in its
machinery for providing advice on management of fish stocks to adapt it to
the changes which have taken place or are likely to take place in the responsibilities
for fish stock management in the area covered by the Council's
activities. At its 65th Statutory Meeting it decided that the Liaison Committee
should be replaced by an Advisory Committee on Fishery Management with a
composition more attuned to these changes. The Advisory Committee on Fishery
Management consists of one member nominated by each member country of the
Council, the Chairmen of the Demersal, Pelagic, and Baltic Fish Committees as
~ officio members and an independent Chairman, nominated by the Consultative
Committee of ICES.
10.17895/ices.pub.5511AFWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-510-4
CRR036.pdf
  
1973CRRReport of the Liaison Committee of ICES to the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission 1973
36
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The groups require the data from the most recent calendar year and some
countries cannot provi~e these before the end of February. Thus, if
meaningful assessments are to be provided, the groups and the Liaison
Committee should meet in March, not in February as at present. This
would entail the Liaison Committee's Report's reaching the Secretary of
the Commission less than than 60 days before the Commission's annual meeting.
10.17895/ices.pub.5512AFWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-522-7
CRR044.pdf
  
1974CRRReport of the Liaison Committee of ICES to the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission 1974; And Report of the Liaison Committee of ICES to the International Baltic Sea Fishery Commission 1974
44
11/11/2020 5:23 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
A general review of fish catches in the Convention Area from 1965 to
1972 is given in Tables 1-3. The tables, which are based on statistics
published in ICES "Bulletin Statistique", show for each NEAFC Region (i) the
nominal catch of all species combined, (ii) the catch in the main fishing• areas
of (a) pelagic species (such as herring, sprat, mackerel and capelin);
(b) demersal species (comprising Gadiforms - codfishes; demersal Percomorphs -
redfishes, gurnards, sandeels etc.; Pleuronectiforms - flatfishes); (c)' each of
the main species within the pelagic and d.emersal fish group. Freshwater and
anadromous species, shellfish and catches by non-member countries of ICES are not
included in the tables.
10.17895/ices.pub.5513AFWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-520-3
CRR049.pdf
  
1975CRRReports of the Liaison Committee of ICES to the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission, November 1974 and May 1975
49
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Reference is made to Section B.2 of the Liaison Committee's Report for
19 14 (Coop.Res.Rep., No.44) which sets out the advice concerning the
regulation of these stocks as formulated by the Liaison Committee at its
meeting in April 1974•
It will be noted that the recommended TACs for 1975 for Arctic Cod
were estimated on the basis of a presumed fishing effort in 1974 eQual
to that in 1973 which would result in a total catch in 1974 of about
680 000 tons. It seems likely, however, that the 1974 catch with the
breakdown of the tri-partite agreement and increased participation of
"third" countries will be considerably higher than this amount and
probably around 800 000 tons. There is thus a need for a revision of
the earlier advice and an ad hoc meeting of the North-East Arctic
Fisheries Working Group was arranged during the ICES 62nd Statutory
Meeting in Copenhagen. The report of this meeting was considered by
the Liaison Committee at its meeting on 5 October,
10.17895/ices.pub.5514AFWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-518-0
CRR225.pdf
  
1998CRRNorth Atlantic-Norwegian Sea Exchange: The ICES NANSEN Project
225
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The ICES NANSEN (North Atlantic - Norwegian Sea Exchanges) project was initiated by Council Resolution
1985/4:9 to study the exchanges of water, heat, and other properties across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge between the
Atlantic Ocean and the areas northeast of the ridge. Across this ridge, warm, saline water makes its way northeastward
in the upper layers while cold, fresher water returns south-westward partly in the upper layers along the
Greenland coast and partly as deep overflows at several locations across the ridge. These exchanges are of major
importance for the global thermohaline circulation as well as for the regional climate of the Nordic Seas and the
Arctic with their surrounding landmasses. ICES has long recognised the importance of these flows by mounting the
Overflow '60 and Overflow '73 experiments which focused mainly on the cold, deep overflows. The NANSEN Project
was initiated to study in more detail the Atlantic water flow north-eastward over the ridge as well as the return flows,
with most emphasis on the eastern part of the area.
10.17895/ices.pub.5517WGOH
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-442-8
CRR168_1.pdf
  
1990CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1989. Part 1
168
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This volume of the Cooperative Research Report contains the reports of the Advisory Committee
on Fishery Management in 1989.
After the May meeting, ICES issued the complete report to the International Baltic Sea
Fishery Commission (IBSFC), Part I of the report to the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission
(NEAFC), and the report to the NOrth Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization
(NASCO). The second part of the report to the NEAFC was issued after the November meeting.
In order to distribute the advice to managers as fast as possible, the reports were issued
in sections and distributed immediately after they had been completed.
The two reports to NEAFC have been edited into one report, placing the stocks in logical sequence
and including all advice on each stock in one place.
The report to NEAFC is followed in Part 2 by the reports to IBSFC, NASCO, and the Government
of Norway.
10.17895/ices.pub.5518ACOM
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-485-5
CRR168_2.pdf
  
1990CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1989. Part 2ACFM
168
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A general review of officially-reported
These are the catches officially reported
publication in the Bulletin Statistique.
catches in the Baltic is given in Tables 1.1-1.5.
to ICES by national statistical offices for
In the assessments, the working groups try to estimate discards, landings which are not
officially reported, and the composition of by-catches. These amounts are included in the
estimates of total catch for each stock and are used in the assessments; thus, they appear
in the tables and figures produced by the working groups. These estimates vary considerably
between different stocks and fisheries, being negligible in some cases and constituting
important parts of the total removals from other stocks. Further, the catches used by the
working groups are broken down into sub-divisions, whereas the officially-reported figures
are reported by the larger Divisions IIIb,c, and d.
The trends in Tables 1.1-1.5 may not, therefore, correspond with those on which assessments
have been based, and are presented for information only, without any comment from ACFM.
The catch data used in the assessments are given in the table section on pages 25-39.
10.17895/ices.pub.5519HAWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-486-2
CRR031.pdf
  
1972CRRReport of the Liaison Committee of ICES to the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission, 1972
31
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This document is a general review of the fish production in the Convention Area from
1963-1970 is given in Tables l-3· The tables, which are based on
statistics published in ICES "Bulletin Statistique" show for each NEAFC
region the nominal catch of all species combined, the catch in the main
fishing areas of (a) demersal species (comprising Pleuronectiformes -
flatfishes; Gadiformes - codfishes; demersal Percomorphs - redfishes,
gurnards, sandeels etc.); (b) pelagic species (all marine fish species
not included in the demersal fish group); (c) each of the main species
within the demersal and pelagic fish groups. Freshwater and anadromous
species, shellfish,and the catches by non-member countries are not ihcluded
in the tables.
10.17895/ices.pub.5516NWWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-523-4
CRR337.pdf
  
2017CRRNew Trends in Important Diseases Affecting the Culture of Fish and Molluscs in the ICES Area 2002 – 2015ASG
337
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Publication covering new trends in key diseases affecting the culture of finfish and molluscs in the ICES Area between 2002 and 2015
wild fish; farmed fish; Disease; mollusca; mollusc; virus; bacteria; clinical signs10.17895/ices.pub.2800WGPDMO
TextRuane, N. and Carnegie, R. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-201-1
CRR159.pdf
  
1988CRRCodes of practice and manual of procedures for consideration of introductions and transfers of marine and freshwater organisms
159
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Introductions or transfers of marine and freshwater organisms in support of
aquaculture or various fishing initiatives have been increasing in numbers quite
rapidly in recent years. This document, prepared as a more deta'iled follow-up to
the 11Codes of Practice11 related to these movements which were prepared by the
International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and the European
Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (EIFAC), addresses some of the concerns and
provides advice related to proposed introductions or transfers. Areas covered are
inspection and certification, quarantine, pathology, genetics and ecology.
Universal concerns in the above mentioned areas which are common to any
introduction or transfer are outlined, as are those related to importations or
other movements which are part of established commercial practice or those related
to scientific study at research facilities. Specific examples of protocols,
mainly related to controlling disease organism spread, are included as are items
related to the methods of handling requests for introductions either at the
national or international level.
10.17895/ices.pub.5520WGITMO
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-488-6
CRR123.pdf
  
1983CRRFlushing Times of the North Sea
123
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The present report deals with an attempt to establish the
possibility of using the concept of "flushing time" in a practical
situation of the North Sea. The excercise should be looked upon as
a basis for further studies. Especially in connection with research
of marine pollution this may be relevant.
In that connection data given here might also be used in practical
pollution problems. At the present stage, however, this might easily
lead to mis-use of data that are presented for another purpose. And
although in the following some of the considerations given are of a
pratical nature in,order to illustrate the significance of-the concepts,
the aims of the report are primarily to contribute to scientific work,
and results presented here will only become more and more firm as they
are supported by further scientific evidence.
Transport processes in the sea, involving both advection and turbulent
diffusion largely determine the distribution of the concentration of
dissolved substances. Studies of .marine pollution require a description
of these transport processes and an understanding of the mechanisms
involved. Also for various other studies the transport processes in the
sea are of importance.
10.17895/ices.pub.5521N/A
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-499-2
CRR338.pdf
  
2017CRRHandbook of Geostatistics in R for Fisheries and Marine Ecology
338
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Fisheries surveys to estimate the abundance of populations have become a pillar in
providing fishery-independent data to determine the status of fish stocks and monitor
ecosystems. Since the early 1990s, geostatistics has been used for designing sampling
at sea and estimating the precision of estimates of global population biomass or abundance
(ICES, 1993; Rivoirard et al., 2000). Now, the ecosystem approach to fisheries
management calls for methods that deal explicitly with spatial issues. In effect, the spatial
management of human activities and/or the conservation of particular habitats require
precise distribution maps of resources at various stages in their life cycle. Geostatistics
offers a range of solutions for mapping and characterizing different aspects
of spatial distributions. On more ecological grounds, geostatistics is also useful for
modeling habitats and understanding the ecology of spatial distributions.
geostatistics; survey precision; mapping; spatial distributions10.17895/ices.pub.3717WGACEGG
TextPetitgas, P.; Woillez, M.; Renard, D.; Bez, N.; and Rivoirard, J.1017-6195978-87-7482-209-7
CRR206.pdf
  
1995CRRDynamics of Upwelling in the ICES Area. Selected papers presented at Theme Session 0 at the ICES Statutory Meeting 23 September-1 October 1993
206
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Intensive interdisciplinary studies of the Benguela Current upwelling system off the south west coast of southern Africa
were done for many years by groups closely connected to research staff of the South African Sea Fisheries Research
Institute. The upwelling in this region is particularly intense and many complex processes can be identified and
modelled. These findings may therefore provide as a useful model for setting up a sampling strategy for study of the
upwelling processes which occur off the west coast of Ireland, or off Northern Europe
10.17895/ices.pub.5522WGSSO
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-465-7
CRR174.pdf
  
1991CRRReport on the results of the ICES fourth intercomparison exercise for nutrients in sea water
174
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Previous nutrient intercomparisons/intercalibrations, conducted directly by
ICES or in which ICES has been involved, include the following exercises:
1965 Copenhagen
1966 Copenhagen/
Leningrad
1970 ICES/SCOR
1977 Kiel
1982 Ronne
1986 PEX
Report: UNESCO Technical Papers in Marine
Sciences No. 3
Report: UNESCO Technical Papers in Marine
Sciences No. 9
Cooperative Research Report No. 67
Report of the Baltic Intercalibration
Workshop in 1977
Baltic Marine Environment Protection
Commission - Biological Workshop Report
Baltic Patchiness Experiment Report 1989
In many cases, nutrient monitoring data form the most representative source
for environmental studies and modelling; however, in all the above
exercises, discrepancies have been found both in methods and in results.
This is especially true for field exercises and, while it is recognised that
the variability in environmental results Includes the variability associated
with sampling and subsequent sample handling, differences in purely analytical
methods are best detected by means of laboratory intercomparisons.
Field exercises are difficult to organise, and the effect of unknown factors
on the results can be considerable, as shown in the Joint International Multiship
Investigation of Patchiness in the Baltic Sea (PEX) exercise.
10.17895/ices.pub.5523MCWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-479-4
CRR175.pdf
  
1991CRRChrysochromulina polylepis bloom in the Skagerrak and Kattegat in May-June 1988: Environmental conditions, possible causeas, and effects
175
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The venue for the Chrysochromulina Workshop was the Institute of Marine Research,
Nordnesparken 2, Bergen, Norway.
Forty-two participants from nine ICES member countries attended the Workshop. A
list of the participants is attached as Annex 1. A detailed outline of the
schedule and the organization of the workshop is attached as Annex 2. Sub-groups
on environmental conditions, properties of Chrysochromulina polylepis, effects
of the bloom, and ameliorating actions, were formed. The chairmen, rapporteurs
and participants in these sub-groups are listed in Annex 3.
The present report is based on contributions from the sub-groups. The editors
have felt it their liberty to amend these contributions for the sake of completeness
of documentation and uniformity of presentation. A draft version of
the report was circulated to all participants for their comments and approval of
the text.
The editors wish to extend thanks to the Workshop participants for their contributions
to the Workshop and this report.
10.17895/ices.pub.5524N/A
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-478-7
CRR023.pdf
  
1991CRRFourth Report of the Bluefin Tuna Working Group. Observation on the size composition of Bluefin Tuna catches from 1967 to 1969
23
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On the occasion of the First Session of the International
Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, FAO has
published a Bulletin of Fisheries Statisti.cs (No .. 19) on the catch statistics of Atlantic tuna fisheries, which inQludes a
table on the catches of Bluefin Tuna in the Atlantic Ocean
and adjacent seas by major fishing areas and by countries. This
is reproduced as Table 1 of the present report. The 1968
figure for Canada has been corrected upon information received
from Dr. S. N~ TIBBO of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada
10.17895/ices.pub.5525N/A
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-524-1
CRR094.pdf
  
1980CRRInteraction between the Fishing Industry and the Offshore gas/oil Industries
94
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At the 65th Statutory Meeting of ICES in September 1977 a special joint
session of the Gear and Behaviour Committee with the Fisheries Improvement
Committee was held on the interaction between the fishing industry and
the offshore gas/oil industries.
Information was requested on national regulations and procedures
relating to the coexistence of fisheries and gas/oil operations as well
as contributions on the potential hazard to each industry from the
operation of the other. In the single (half-day) session available it
was clearly not possible to deal comprehensively or in depth with the
subject and since most of the papers came from fishery scientists it was
inevitable that the emphasis should be on effects on fish stocks and
gear, but the question of damage to underwater pipe-lines was also considered.
A total of 17 papers were presented and discussed (see Appendix).
Subsequently it was proposed that we should edit the material for
publication as a Cooperative Research Report.
In assessing the contributions, we considered that authors should be
given an opportunity to update their presentations and that any additional
relevant material from the 1978 Statutory Meeting should be considered.
This allowed us to include a paper from USA. After further consultations
with the authors we have reproduced some papers more or less as originally
presented, while others have been abstracted or summarised.
It must be emphasised that offshore oil activities are continuously
developing, and that fishing patterns are changing, so both industries
are in a highly dynamic state. The picture presented by these papers
must thus be regarded as a limited snapshot of things in the period 1977/78.
10.17895/ices.pub.5526N/A
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-506-7
CRR147.pdf
  
1987CRRReports on the Results of the Baltic Sediment Intercalibration Exercise
147
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During its meeting in 1982, the ICES/SCOR Working Group on the
Study of the Pollution of the Baltic Sea (SCOR WG 42) agreed that
"Pilot Sediment Studies" should be initiated in its study area. A
basic pro9ramme proposed by an §.Q hQ~. Sediment Group, convened by
Dr L. Niemisto, was accepted. This programme was set up in order
to investi9ate several closely related tasks, including
a) problems of contamination history, reflected by contaminant
profiles in se9mented sediment cores,
b) material fluxes across the water-sediment interface, and
c) geochemical processes in the early stages of diagenesis.
10.17895/ices.pub.5527MCWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-491-6
CRR340.pdf
  
2018CRRUsing UWTV surveys to assess and advise on Nephrops stocksEOSG
340
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Nephrops are found on the continental shelf and slope throughout the Northeast Atlantic,
from the Canary Islands in the south to Iceland in the north. The species is also
found in the western Mediterranean, Adriatic, and Aegean seas. Throughout its
range, Nephrops are a target or bycatch species in commercial fisheries which yield
annual landings in the order of 60 kt. The majority of landings are made in trawl fisheries,
but smaller-scale creel or pot fisheries also occur in many areas. Ensuring sustainable
fisheries is a key objective of managers and fishers of Nephrops stocks.
Nephrops construct distinctive burrows in muddy sediments that range from fine‐
grained mud through sandy mud and muddy sands to muddy gravel in water
depths from 4 to 800 m. Characteristics such as growth and population density vary
in a manner that suggests links with sediment type, food availability, and local hydrography.
Some populations are characterized by dense assemblages of small animals,
while others are composed of lower density groups that have a wider size
range of animals including some large sized individuals.
The life history characteristics of Nephrops vary across its range, e.g. in relation to the
time of spawning, duration of egg incubation, timing of larval release, duration of
planktonic phase, whether eggs are spawned annually or biennially, timing of moulting
and mating. Following the pelagic phase (three zoea stages), post-larvae settle
into the seabed, some at least connecting their burrows with those of adults. The lifestyle
of juveniles appears to be burrow‐oriented; they are poorly represented in
catches (even those from fine‐meshed gear) until after the pubertal moult. Little is
known about the juvenile phase of the life cycle.
Reviews of the life history and biological parameters of Nephrops norvegicus are provided
by Figueiredo and Thomas (1967), Farmer (1975), Chapman (1980), Sardà
(1995), and Bell et al. (2006). These comprehensive works include information on
growth (growth curves, growth rates, moulting patterns, etc.), reproduction (size at
first maturity, reproductive cycle, fecundity, and larval development), burrowing and
emergence behaviour (diurnal activity patterns, seasonal patterns, etc.), food and
feeding, predation, mortality, fisheries, and management. Data regarding Mediterranean
Nephrops are collected in a monographic volume of Scientia Marina (Sardà,
1998).
lobster; nephrops; underwater television survey; stock assesment; survey; Fisheries10.17895/ices.pub.4370WGNEPS
TextLeocádio, A.; Weetman, A.; and Wieland, K. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-212-7
CRR341.pdf
  
2018CRRThe SONAR-netCDF4 convention for sonar data, Version 1.0EOSG
341
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Sonars have long been used to study and understand fisheries and the aquatic environment,
but only recently have they directly provided digital data for quantitative
analysis. Each manufacturer typically provides such data in a proprietary, but usually
open, file format specific to their sonar systems. This hinders the effective use and
exchange of such data by requiring the development and maintenance of file-reading
software for multiple analysis programs and multiple sonars.
This document presents a convention for the storage and exchange of fisheries sonar
data, with an initial focus on omnisonars. It is sufficiently generic and flexible to contain
all foreseeable types of fisheries sonar data, along with necessary metadata. It also
serves as a statement of the minimum set of data and metadata required to use omnisonar
data in a quantitative manner
sonar; omnisonar; Fisheries; Acoustic data10.17895/ices.pub.4392WGFAST
TextMacaulay, G.; and Peña, H. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-214-1
CRR113.pdf
  
1982CRRReport of the Dialogue Meeting, 18 September 1981
113
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1. The meeting was chaired by the President of ICES, Professor G. Hempel, who
briefly summarized the discussions and presentations made at the Dialogue
Meetings on 20-21 May 1980 and 4 October 1980 (Cooparative Research Report
No. 106), and referred to Cooperative Research Report No. 62 (Report of
the ad hoc Meeting on the Provision of Advice on the Biological Basis for
Fisheries Management).
2. The Chairman reminded the audience that it has been generally agreed that
the Dialogue Meetings have been useful, and the October 1980 Meeting
requested ICES to continue for the time being to invite to such meetings.
It had also been felt desirable if at the third meeting the management
representatives provided, as a feed-back, specific comments on the
regulation objectives which were implicit or directly stated in the reports
of ACFM. This task had been facilitated by ACFM spelling out the objectives
it has accepted as the basis of its advice and the policy it advocates in
order to reach them, in a separate section of its report.
3. The Chairman then outlined problems, which he suggested should be further
discussed at the present meeting and these were agreed by the participants
10.17895/ices.pub.5528AFWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-504-3
CRR139.pdf
  
1986CRRReport on the Fifth Dialogue Meeting, 4 October 1985ACFM
139
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The Fifth Dialogue Meeting was held at Church House, London
on 4 October 1985 and was chaired by the President of ICES,
Professor W.S. Wooster. The General Secretary and Statistician
served as Rapporteurs.
The meeting was attended by about 70 scientists, administrators,
managers, and fishing industry representatives. A
list of participants is given in Annex 1.
The President opened the meeting at 09.30 hrs, welcomed the
participants, and presented a brief introductory statement
(Annex 2). He indicated that fishery management consists of
three levels of activity: 1) establishing harvest levels
and structure, 2) allocating the harvest, and 3) enforcing
regulations. ICES is concerned only with the first of these
levels, but scientists alone cannot set harvest levels. The
tasks of the Dialogue Meeting are to: 1) explore the extent
to which managers and scientists agree on the kind of
scientific advice to be provided; 2) consider how best to
improve the quality and timeliness of stock assessments and
predictions; and 3) examine ways to improve communications
between scientists and managers.
Written presentations and discussion focused on five main
topics which are listed in Annex 3. Eight papers were submitted
to the meeting, five prepared by ICES scientists and
three by representatives from the management and industry
sides.
10.17895/ices.pub.5529WGECON
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-493-0
CRR158.pdf
  
1988CRRReport on the Sixth Dialogue Meeting, 27 October 1987
158
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The Sixth Dialogue Meeting was held
1987. It was co-sponsored by ICES and
Fisheries Commission and was hosted
European Communities (CEC) at the Centre
in Brussels on 27 October
the North-East Atlantic
by the Commission of the
Borschette.
The meeting was organized in the form of a debate involving an
expert representing each of the three groups involved in the
fishery management process (scientists, administrators/managers,
and the fishing industry), with provision for open discussion involving
the audience. The members of the debate were Mr David de
G. Griffith, fisheries scientist from Dublin, Ireland, member and
former chairman of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management
(ACFM); Mr Broer B. van der Meer, Director of the Netherlands
Institute for Fishery Investigations, IJmuiden and former
Director of Fisheries, Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture and
Fisheries, The Hague; and Mr Finn Bergesen, Jr, Secretary General
of the Norwegian Fishermen's Association, Trondheim.
Three major topics selected for consideration at the meeting were
stability, management systems, and long-term objectives for resource
utilization. The meeting was, therefore, divided into
three parts with separate debate and discussion on each topic.
The meeting was chaired by the President of ICES, Mr Ole Johan
0stvedt, with the ICES General Secretary (Dr Basil B. Parrish)
and Statistician (Dr Emory D. Anderson) serving as rapporteurs.
Others at the speaker's table included Mr Bernhard Vaske, Chair-man
of ACFM; Mr Peter J. Ogden, Acting Secretary, North-East Atlantic
Fisheries commission, London; and Mr Michael J. Holden,
Head of Division XIV-B-1, Directorate-General for Fisheries, Commission
of the European Communities, Brussels.
10.17895/ices.pub.5530WGNSSK
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-489-3
CRR171.pdf
  
1990CRRReport on the Seventh Dialogue Meeting, 28 November 1989ACFM
171
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The Seventh ICES Dialogue Meeting was held on 28 November 1989 in
the Strand Palace Hotel, London. It was co-sponsored by ICES, the
North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC) and the International
Baltic Sea Fishery Commission (IBSFC). The main theme of
the meeting concerned the biological, economic and social considerations
in determining the objectives of fishery management,
taking into account the management of shared stocks.
The aim of all Dialogue Meetings has been to promote communication
among three groups of people concerned with fisheries management,
namely 1) fishery scientists, 2) national and international
administrators and 3) members of the fishing industry.
Each group was well represented making a balanced discussion
possible. Of the approximately 110 participants (from 14
countries), 28% were scientists, 37% were administrators and 35%
represented the industry. A list of participants is given in Appendix
1. The meeting was conducted in English but simultaneous
interpretation into English, French and Spanish was provided by
the Commission of the European Community.
The meeting was chaired by Mr Jakob Jakobsson, President of ICES.
Four speakers representing fisheries science, economics, administration
and the fishing industry presented papers and led the
discussion. The speakers were Dr John Shepherd (MAFF Fisheries
Laboratory, Lowestoft), Professor Rognvaldur Hannesson (Norwegian
school of Economics and Business Administration, Bergen), Mr
Michael Holden (Commission of the European Communities, Brussels)
and Mr John Goodlad (Shetland Fishermen's Association, Lerwick).
The ICES General Secretary and Statistician acted as rapporteurs.
The meeting comprised two sessions, one on Stability and the
other on Objectives, with each beginning with presentations from
the speakers and ending with open discussion.
Copies of all the papers prepared by the speakers had been circulated
to participants prior to the meeting. Copies of reports
of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management (ACFM) for
1989 were available at the meeting together with samples of 1989
ICES assessment working group reports. A list of technical terms
and their definitions, which was available at the meeting, is
given in Appendix 2.
10.17895/ices.pub.5531N/A
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-482-4
CRR186.pdf
  
1993CRREighth ICES Dialogue Meeting. "How to use the sea: Management interactions with special reference to the Baltic and its fisheries"
186
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At the end of the twentieth century when Man has, for
decades, been a major environmental and climatic influence
on the earth on a global or at least regional scale,
one cannot assume that a sea surrounded by nine highly
industrialized countries with an intensive agriculture could
- as a whole - still be in a 'natural state'. In part, the
anthropogenic influences have 'only' accelerated (or
slowed down) natural processes, for example,
eutrophication, erosion/abrasion and weathering, by mainly
physical and chemical disturbances (loading of nutrients
and heavy metals, shipping, fishing, especially bottom
trawling, mining). However, in addition, xenobiotics
and radionuclides contribute to new threats for the ecosystem,
its compartments or even for Man as a consumer of
sea-<lerived food.
10.17895/ices.pub.5532HAWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-475-6
CRR197.pdf
  
1994CRRNinth ICES Dialogue Meeting. "Atlantic Salmon: A Dialogue"
197
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The ninth ICES Dialogue Meeting entitled "Atlantic
Salmon: A Dialogue" was held as part of the first, open
session of the annual meeting of the North Atlantic
Salmon Conservation Organisation (NASCO). It was
jointly sponsored by NASCO, the International Baltic
Sea Fisheries Commission (IBSFC) and the International
Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES).
The sponsoring organizations gratefully acknowledge
financial support provided by the European Economic
Community (AIR Programme)
10.17895/ices.pub.5533WGNAS
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-469-5
CRR227.pdf
  
1999CRRTenth ICES Dialogue Meeting, 19-20 October 1995
227
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The 10th ICES Dialogue Meeting was held in Vigo, Spain, in the city's imposing Cultural Centre from 19 to 20 October
1995. The Meeting followed the structure that was laid down in 1985. From that time onwards the Dialogue Meeting has
become tri-partite including professionals from the fish productions sectors, fisheries managers and fisheries scientists. The
fisheries discussed at this meeting were those of the Bay of Biscay and the Atlantic waters off the Iberian Peninsula. The
meeting was co-sponsored by ICES and the European Commission.
About 100 French, Portuguese, and Spanish representatives of fishermen attended. Spain was by far the best represented.
There were a significant number of researchers from fisheries research institutions in France, Portugal and Spain. High level
representatives of National Administrations in charge of fisheries and of DG XIV also participated. The timetable of the
meeting is given in Annex l and the list of participants in Annex 2.
The General Secretary for Maritime Fisheries in Spain, Mr. Jose Loira, welcomed the participants and pointed out how
important it is to achieve responsible fishing in accordance with the now adopted FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible
Fishing prepared by FAO.
10.17895/ices.pub.5534WGCSE
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-441-1
CRR329.pdf
  
2016CRRICES Report on Ocean Climate 2014EPDSG
329
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In the ICES Report on Ocean Climate (IROC), these valuable data are collated to provide the very
latest information from the ICES areas of the North Atlantic and the Nordic seas. A description of
the status of sea temperature and salinity during 2013 and 2014 at locations where the ocean is
regularly measured is offered, along with observed trends over the past decade and longer where
possible.
In the first section of the report, information is compiled from the longest time-series to give
the best possible overview of changes in the ICES Area. Although the focus of the report is on
temperature and salinity measurements, additional complementary datasets are provided
throughout the report, such as sea level pressure, air temperature, and ice cover.
The main focus of this report is the observed variability in the upper ocean (the upper 1000 m). The
introductory section includes gridded fields constructed by optimal analysis of the Argo float data
distributed by the Coriolis data centre in France. Later in the report, a short section summarizes the
variability of the intermediate and deep waters of the North Atlantic.
The data presented here represent an accumulation of knowledge collected by many individuals
and institutions through decades of observations. It would be impossible to list them all; the list
of contacts for each dataset at the end of the report therefore includes e-mail addresses for the
individuals who provided the information as well as the data centres at which the full archives of
data are held. Much of the data included in this report are available for download via a web tool at
http://ocean.ices.dk/iroc.
IROC; WGOH; ocean climate; climate change10.17895/ices.pub.5136WGOH
TextLarsen, K.M.H.; Gonzalez-Pola, C.; Fratantoni, P.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; and Hughes, S.L. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-178-6
CRR331.pdf
  
2016CRRICES Report on Ocean Climate 2015EPDSG
331
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Long time-series of ocean properties are rare for the surface ocean and even rarer for the deep ocean. The North Atlantic region is
unusual in having a relatively large number of locations at which oceanographic data have been collected repeatedly for many years or
decades; the longest records go back more than a century.
The collation of these valuable data in the ICES Report on Ocean Climate (IROC) provides the very latest information from the ICES Area
of the North Atlantic and the Nordic seas. This report describes the status of sea temperature and salinity in 2015 at locations where the
ocean is regularly measured, including observed trends over the past decade – and longer where possible.
The first section of the report contains information from the longest time-series, offering the best possible overview of changes in the
ICES area. Although the focus of the report is on temperature and salinity measurements, additional complementary datasets are
provided throughout the report on topics such as sea level pressure, air temperature, and ice cover.
The main focus of this report is the observed variability in the upper ocean (the upper 1000 m). The introductory section includes
gridded fields, constructed by optimal analysis of the Argo float data and distributed by the Coriolis data centre in France. Later in the
report, a short section summarizes the variability of the intermediate and deep waters of the North Atlantic. In this section, additional
time-series from the Western Iberian Margin (IROC 2014; Larsen et al., 2016) and the Canary Basin (new) have been included.
The data presented here represent an accumulation of knowledge collected by many individuals and institutions through decades
of observations. While it would be impossible to list them all, a list of contacts for each dataset is provided at the end of the report,
including e-mail addresses for the individuals who provided the information and the data centres at which the full archives of data are
held. Many of the data included in this report are available to download via a web tool at http://ocean.ices.dk/iroc.
IROC; WGOH; ocean climate; climate change10.17895/ices.pub.5137WGOH
TextLarsen, K.M.H.; Gonzalez-Pola, C.; Fratantoni, P.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; and Hughes, S.L. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-188-5
CRR245.pdf
  
2002CRRThe Annual ICES Ocean Climate Status Summary 2000/2001
245
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The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index continued to recover to positive values up to and including winter 2000 (winter is defined by the year of the January), though with some indication of an eastward shift in the NAO dipole pattern. The result was that most parts of the area under review showed moderate or warm conditions in 2000. Though the climatic data set for winter 2001 is not yet complete, early indications are that the NAO index has undergone a sharp return to negative conditions.
Surface temperatures off West Greenland were relatively warm during the summer of 2000 due to mild atmospheric conditions. Stronger inflows of polar water were noted.
Ocean conditions in the Northwest Atlantic cooled slightly during 2000 relative to 1999 values, but were near or above normal in most areas. Sea-ice extent also increased slightly over the light ice conditions of 1999. An increased southward transport of polar waters was noted on the Labrador shelf.
The surface waters of the Labrador Sea were observed to be slightly cooler, fresher and denser in the summer of 2000 compared to 1999. More convection and overturning took place in the Labrador Sea during the 2000 winter than in recent years, but not as intense as during the early 1990s.
In Icelandic waters, 2000 revealed in general relatively high temperatures and salinities as in the last 2-3 years, following the very cold years of 1995 and 1996, although temperatures were also cooler than 1999 in this area.
The annual mean air temperature over the southern Bay of Biscay during 2000 remained at nearly the same value as during the two preceding years. Surface waters were slightly cooler and fresher than in previous years.
Early 2000 saw a peak in the temperature of surface waters in the Rockall Trough, caused by an influx of unusually warm water into the region. By the spring of 2000 the temperature had dropped somewhat, though it remained above the long-term mean.
2000 was the sixth warmest year since 1971 in the North Sea, in terms of annual mean sea surface temperature. All months were warmer than average, except for June and July. There was evidence of a large input of freshwater from the Baltic.
Since 1996, temperatures have increased in the southern and central Norwegian Sea. In 2000 the warming continued at the southern section while a cooling occurred at the central section. In the northern Norwegian Sea the temperature since 1996 has been close to the long-term average.
IROC; WGOH; ocean climate; climate change10.17895/ices.pub.5123WGOH
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-419-0
CRR251.pdf
  
2002CRRThe Annual ICES Ocean Climate Status Summary 2001/2002
251
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The NAO: The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index has been slowly recovering to positive values since the extreme negative value of 1996. However, during the winter preceding 2001 it again became negative. The response seen throughout the ICES area to the 1996 switch of the NAO has not been observed in 2001, probably due to a different pattern of sea level pressure over the North Atlantic. In 2001 the pattern exhibited a large weak positive anomaly stretching from northern Scandinavia to Newfoundland.
IROC; WGOH; ocean climate; climate change10.17895/ices.pub.5124WGOH
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-413-8
CRR259.pdf
  
2003CRRThe Annual ICES Ocean Climate Status Summary 2002/2003
259
11/24/2020 10:54 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
In most areas of the North Atlantic during 2002 temperature and salinity were higher than the long-term average.
The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index switched back to negative conditions during the winter preceding 2001, having recovered in the previous four years from the extreme negative value of 1996, which had brought to an end a period of extreme and persistent positive NAO index in the late 1980s/early 1990s. The 2002 NAO index showed a return to positive values which for the winter as a whole were not extreme, although individual months exhibited extreme and opposing sea-level pressure anomaly patterns
IROC; WGOH; ocean climate; climate change10.17895/ices.pub.5125WGOH
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-379-7
CRR269.pdf
  
2004CRRThe Annual ICES Ocean Climate Status Summary 2003/2004
269
11/24/2020 10:48 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Ocean climate data from 14 areas around the North
Atlantic are summarised in this report. Observations in
2003 are compared to the average conditions and the
longer-term trends in each dataset. Throughout the report,
all temperatures are quoted in °C. The key parameters
described in the report are seawater temperature and
salinity, but other oceanographic and meteorological parameters
such as heat flux, air temperature and sea level
pressure have been included for some areas. Figure 2 illustrates
the general pattern of oceanic circulation in the
North Atlantic in relation to the areas described in this
report.
In order to describe the ocean climate of area, key
datasets or time-series have been identified and presented.
The time-series have been carefully chosen to
represent conditions in a particular area. Sometimes the
time-series presented are measurements from a single location,
but frequently they have been constructed from
much larger and more complex datasets.
Where appropriate, data in this report are presented
as anomalies in order to show how the values compare to
the average or ‘normal’ conditions. For this report the
normal conditions refer to the long-term average of each
parameter during the period 1971–2000. For datasets that
do not extend as far back as 1971, the average conditions
have been calculated from the start of the dataset up to
2000.
Where necessary, the seasonal cycle has been removed
from each dataset, either by calculating the average
seasonal cycle over the period 1971–2000, or drawing
on other sources such as regional climatological datasets.
In the summary tables and figures, normalised
anomalies have been presented to allow intercomparison
of trends in the data from different regions (Figure 1 and
Table 1). The anomalies have been normalised by dividing
the values by the standard deviation of the data during
the period 1971–2000.
IROC; WGOH; ocean climate; climate change10.17895/ices.pub.5126WGOH
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-367-4
CRR275.pdf
  
2005CRRThe Annual ICES Ocean Climate Status Summary 2004/2005
275
11/24/2020 10:46 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
In almost all areas of the eastern and western North Atlantic during 2004, temperature and salinity in the upper layers remained higher than the long-term average, with new records set in numerous regions. There was isolated cooling off the eastern North American coast. In most areas the trend over the last decade (1994–2004) has been one of warming.
Figure 1 shows annual-mean normalised temperature and salinity anomalies for selected time-series in the upper layers of the ocean around the North Atlantic Region. The trends in these data over the past 10 years are illustrated in Table 1. Table 2 contains additional information about each of the time-series.
The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index during the winter of 2004 was negative, but both the Iceland Low and the Azores High weakened. A mid-latitude low pressure anomaly associated with the reduced Azores High was stronger in the west, resulting in pressure anomaly patterns over the western North Atlantic consistent with a strongly negative NAO.
IROC; WGOH; ocean climate; climate change10.17895/ices.pub.5127WGOH
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-361-2
CRR280.pdf
  
2006CRRICES Report on Ocean Climate 2005
280
11/24/2020 10:44 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The ICES Report on Ocean Climate (IROC 2005) provides a view of environmental
conditions in the North Atlantic in 2005 by summarizing results from long-term observations
at standard sections and stations. The IROC (formerly known as the ICES Annual Ocean
Climate Status Summary) is an annual publication by the ICES Working Group on Oceanic
Hydrography
IROC; WGOH; ocean climate; climate change10.17895/ices.pub.5128WGOH
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-356-8
CRR289.pdf
  
2007CRRICES Report on Ocean Climate 2006
289
11/24/2020 10:40 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This report describes the present (2006) status of sea temperature and salinity in the ICES region of the North Atlantic and Nordic Seas, as well as trends observed. Some additional datasets are provided, including those on sea level pressure, air temperature, and ice cover. Although the focus is on the variations in the upper ocean (the top 1000 m),
information about changes in the deeper layers of the ocean is also included in specific regions of interest.
A new edition of the report is published annually in the ICES Cooperative Research Report series.
The North Atlantic region is unusual in having a relatively large number of locations at which oceanographic data have been collected for several years or even decades. The longest records go back more than a century. In this report, we provide the very latest information from places where the ocean is currently being measured regularly. Although the North Atlantic is rich in measurements compared with other parts of the global ocean, there is still only a thin scattering of long records of deep ocean measurements. In the first part of the report, we draw together the sparse information and give the best possible overview of the region. Numerical models using real ocean measurements to simulate variations over time are continually being improved. In future editions, we hope to develop this part of the report to present the new information provided by the combination of models and data.
IROC; WGOH; ocean climate; climate change10.17895/ices.pub.5129WGOH
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-347-6
CRR298.pdf
  
2009CRRICES Report on Ocean Climate 2008
298
11/24/2020 10:34 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The main focus of the annual ICES Report on Ocean Climate is the observed variability in the upper
ocean (the upper 1000 m), and the introductory section includes gridded fields constructed by optimal
analysis of the Argo float data distributed by the Coriolis data centre, in France. Later in the report, there
is a short section summarizing the variability of the intermediate and deep waters of the North Atlantic.
The data presented here represent an accumulation of knowledge collected by many individuals and
institutions through decades of observations. It would be impossible to list them all, but at the end of
the report, we provide a list of contacts for each dataset, including e-mail addresses for the individuals
who provided the information, and the data centres at which the full archives of data are held.
More detailed analysis of the datasets that form the time-series presented in this report can be found
in the annual meeting reports of the ICES Working Group on Oceanic Hydrography at http://www.
ices.dk/iceswork/wgdetail.asp?wg=WGOH.
IROC; WGOH; ocean climate; climate change10.17895/ices.pub.5131WGOH
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-336-0
CRR339.pdf
  
2018CRRICES Report on Ocean Climate 2016EPDSG
339
10/7/2020 10:55 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Long time-series of ocean properties are rare in the surface
ocean and even rarer in the deep ocean. The North
Atlantic region is unusual in having a relatively large
number of locations at which oceanographic data have
been collected repeatedly for many years or decades; the
longest records go back more than a century.
These valuable data are collated in ICES Report on Ocean
Climate (IROC) to provide the very latest information
from ICES areas of the North Atlantic and Nordic seas.
At locations where the ocean is regularly measured, sea
temperature and salinity status are described for 2016.
Observed trends over the past decade, and longer where
possible, are also included.
IROC; WGOH; ocean climate; climate change10.17895/ices.pub.4069WGOH
TextGonzález-Pola, C.; Larsen, K.M.H.; Fratantoni, P.; Beszczynzka-Möller, A.; and Hughes, S.L. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-210-3
CRR345.pdf
  
2018CRRICES Report on Ocean Climate 2017EPDSG
345
10/7/2020 10:00 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Long time-series of ocean properties are rare in the surface
ocean and even more uncommon in the deep ocean.
The North Atlantic region is unique in having a relatively
large number of locations where oceanographic data have
been collected repeatedly for multiple years or decades;
the longest records extend back more than a century.
ICES Report on Ocean Climate (IROC) combines decades
of ocean observations across the North Atlantic ICES
region to describe the current status of sea temperature
and salinity and atmospheric conditions, as well as
observed trends and recent variability.
IROC; WGOH; ocean climate; climate change10.17895/ices.pub.4625WGOH
TextGonzalez-Pola, C.; Larsen, K. M. H.; Fratantoni, P.; and Beszczynska-Möller, A. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-221-9
CRR309.pdf
  
2011CRRICES Report on Ocean Climate 2010EPDSG
309
10/13/2020 10:50 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The main focus of the annual ICES Report on Ocean Climate (IROC) is the observed variability in the
upper ocean (the upper 1000 m), and the introductory section includes gridded fields constructed by
optimal analysis of the Argo float data distributed by the Coriolis data centre in France. Later in the
report, a short section summarizes the variability of the intermediate and deep waters of the North
Atlantic.
The data presented here represent an accumulation of knowledge collected by many individuals and
institutions through decades of observations. It would be impossible to list them all, but at the end of
the report, we provide a list of contacts for each dataset, including e-mail addresses for the individuals
who provided the information, and the data centres at which the full archives of data are held.
More detailed analysis of the datasets that form the time-series presented in this report can be found
in the annual meeting reports of the ICES Working Group on Oceanic Hydrography at http://www.
ices.dk/workinggroups/ViewWorkingGroup.aspx?ID=146.
IROC; WGOH; ocean climate; climate change10.17895/ices.pub.5133WGOH
TextHughes, S.L.; Holliday, N.P.; Beszczynska-Möller, A. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-325-4
CRR314.pdf
  
2012CRRICES Report on Ocean Climate 2011EPDSG
314
10/13/2020 9:09 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
The North Atlantic region is unusual in having a relatively large number of locations at which
oceanographic data have been collected repeatedly for many years or decades; the longest records go
back more than a century. In this report, we provide the very latest information from the ICES Area
of the North Atlantic and Nordic seas, where the ocean is currently measured regularly. We describe
the status of sea temperature and salinity during 2011, as well as the observed trends over the past
decade or longer. In the first part of the report, we draw together the information from the longest
time-series in order to give the best possible overview of changes in the ICES Area. Throughout the
report, additional complementary datasets are provided, such as sea level pressure, air temperature,
and ice cover.
The main focus of the annual ICES Report on Ocean Climate (IROC) is the observed variability in the
upper ocean (the upper 1000 m). The introductory section includes gridded fields constructed by
optimal analysis of the Argo float data distributed by the Coriolis data centre in France. Later in the
report, a short section summarizes the variability of the intermediate and deep waters of the North
Atlantic.
The data presented here represent an accumulation of knowledge collected by many individuals and
institutions through decades of observations. It would be impossible to list them all, but at the end of
the report, we provide a list of contacts for each dataset, including e-mail addresses for the individuals
who provided the information, and the data centres at which the full archives of data are held.
More detailed analysis of the datasets that form the time-series presented in this report can be found
in the annual meeting reports of the ICES Working Group on Oceanic Hydrography at http://www.
ices.dk/workinggroups/ViewWorkingGroup.aspx?ID=146.
IROC; WGOH; ocean climate; climate change10.17895/ices.pub.5134WGOH
TextDye, S. R.; and Beszczynska-Moller, A. (Eds)1017-6195978-87-7482-319-3
CRR291.pdf
  
2008CRRICES Report on Ocean Climate 2007
291
11/24/2020 10:37 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
In this section, we summarize the conditions in the upper layers of the North Atlantic during 2007, using data from a selected set of sustained observations and additional data products (gridded sea surface temperature (SST) data and summaries from ARGO floats).
Where in situ data are presented in the summary tables and figures, normalized anomalies have been presented to allow better comparison of trends in the data from different regions (Figures 1–3; Tables 1 and 2). The anomalies have been normalized by dividing the values by the standard deviation of the data during 1971–2000. A value of +2 thus represents data (temperature or salinity) at 2 standard deviations higher than normal.
Sea surface temperatures across the entire North Atlantic have also been obtained from a combined satellite and in situ gridded dataset. Figure 3 shows the annual and seasonal SST anomaly for 2007, extracted from the Optimum Interpolation SSTv2 dataset provided by the NOAA-CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center in the US. In high latitudes where in situ data are sparse and satellite data are hindered by cloud cover, the data may be less reliable. Regions with ice cover for >50% of the averaging period are left blank.
Maps of temperature, salinity, and winter mixed-layer depth in the North Atlantic have been prepared using in situ data including the newly expanding dataset from the ARGO float programme. The upper layer temperature anomalies for 2007 compare well with those obtained using OISSTv2 data (Figure 1). These maps (Figures 4 and 5) offer a more detailed overview of conditions than can be obtained from satellite observations and provide the spatial context to compare with the in situ time-series.
IROC; WGOH; ocean climate; climate change10.17895/ices.pub.5130WGOH
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-345-2
CRR304.pdf
  
2010CRRICES Report on Ocean Climate 2009EPDSG
304
10/13/2020 12:15 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
The main focus of the annual ICES Report on Ocean Climate is the observed variability in the upper
ocean (the upper 1000 m), and the introductory section includes gridded fields constructed by optimal
analysis of the Argo float data distributed by the Coriolis data centre in France. Later in the report, a
short section summarizes the variability of the intermediate and deep waters of the North Atlantic.
The data presented here represent an accumulation of knowledge collected by many individuals and
institutions through decades of observations. It would be impossible to list them all, but at the end of
the report, we provide a list of contacts for each dataset, including e-mail addresses for the individuals
who provided the information, and the data centres at which the full archives of data are held.
More detailed analysis of the datasets that form the time-series presented in this report can be found
in the annual meeting reports of the ICES Working Group on Oceanic Hydrography at http://www.
ices.dk/iceswork/wgdetail.asp?wg=WGOH.
IROC; WGOH; ocean climate; climate change10.17895/ices.pub.5132WGOH
TextHughes, S. L., Holliday, N. P., and Beszczynska-Möller, A. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-330-8
CRR347.pdf
  
2019CRRMoving towards integrated ecosystem monitoringEOSG
347
10/7/2020 9:49 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This report provides guidance on the development of ecosystem monitoring, defined
here as “the monitoring of one or more components of the ecosystem”. The guidance
is developed under the umbrella of the ICES Working Group on Integrating Surveys
for the Ecosystem Approach (WGISUR). This report is focused around platform-based
approaches, usually research vessels. It is influenced by the framework for ICES coordinated
surveys, which use national efforts to collect information on fish abundance,
diversity, and distribution. However, it is set up in such a manner that the general
concepts can be useful for integrating other marine monitoring. The report describes
how moving towards ecosystem monitoring can take place through three different approaches:
a) starting ecosystem monitoring from the very beginning;
b) redesigning existing monitoring by combining new objectives with existing objectives;
or
c) adding data collection to existing monitoring without changing the design.
monitoring; marine monitoring; ecosystem monitoring; integrated monitoring; monitoring set-up10.17895/ices.pub.4703WGISUR
Textde Boois, I. (Ed.)1017-6195978-87-7482-235-6
CRR321.pdf
  
2013CRRICES Report on Ocean Climate 2012EPDSG
321
10/8/2020 12:53 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
The North Atlantic region is unusual in having a relatively large number of locations at which oceanographic
data have been collected repeatedly for many years or decades; the longest records go back more than a century.
In this report, we provide the very latest information from the ICES Area of the North Atlantic and Nordic seas,
where the ocean is currently measured regularly. We describe the status of sea temperature and salinity during
2012 as well as observed trends over a minimum of the past decade. In the first section of the report, we draw
together the information from the longest time-series in order to give the best possible overview of changes
in the ICES Area. Throughout the report, additional complementary datasets are provided, such as sea level
pressure, air temperature, and ice cover.
The main focus of the annual ICES Report on Ocean Climate (IROC) is the observed variability in the upper
ocean (the upper 1000 m). The introductory section includes gridded fields constructed by optimal analysis of the
Argo float data distributed by the Coriolis data centre in France. Later in the report, a short section summarizes
the variability of the intermediate and deep waters of the North Atlantic.
The data presented here represent an accumulation of knowledge collected by many individuals and institutions
through decades of observations. It would be impossible to list them all, but at the end of the report, we provide
a list of contacts for each dataset, including e-mail addresses for the individuals who provided the information,
and the data centres at which the full archives of data are held.
More detailed analysis of the datasets that form the time-series presented in this report can be found in the
annual meeting reports of the ICES Working Group on Oceanic Hydrography at http://www.ices.dk/community/
groups/Pages/WGOH.aspx. The group has recently made the many of the datasets available through a new web
tool at http://ocean.ices.dk/iroc.
IROC; WGOH; ocean climate; climate change10.17895/ices.pub.5135WGOH
TextBeszczynska-Möller, A.; and Dye, S.R. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-312-4
CRR 093 ACFM Report 1979.pdf
  
1980CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1979
93
11/11/2020 2:35 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
In response to a re~uest, from the Commission of the European Economic
Community to conduct a study of the ~uantitative effects on the yield
of the industrial fishery, and of the human consumption fishery, of a
Norway pout box closed to the industrial fishery in the North Sea, ICES
set up an ad hoc Working Group on the Norway Pout Box Problem, which
met in Charlottenlund from 29 January to 2 February 1979 to consider
this ~uestion.
WGNSSK
Text1017-6195978-87-7482-507-4
CRR 102 ACFM Report 1980.pdf
  
1981CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1980ACOM
102
11/24/2020 9:26 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
In response to a request from the Commission of the European Economic Community
the ACFM met, on 16-17 May 1980, at IC~S headquarters to provide advice,
about 6 weeks earlier than it would have done in the normal course of events,
on three topics:
(a) any revision of the TAC, previously advised in the ACFM report prepared
in.July 1979, for North Sea cod in 1980;
(b) any revision of the TAC for North Sea and Skagerrak saithe
previously advised for 1980;
(c) to comment on the advisability of re-opening in 1980, under
small TACs, herring fisheries currently subject to prohibitions
on directed fisheries.
10.17895/ices.pub.5555ACOM
Text1017-6195978-87-7482-505-0
CRR 114 ACFM Report 1981.pdf
  
1982CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1981
114
11/11/2020 12:19 PMSøren Killerup Larsen
At the two Dialogue Meetings between representatives of the management authorities
and ICES sCientists, clearer ideas emerged as to how the advice on fish
stock management should be given in order to improve the usefulness of this
advice to the management bodies.
AFWG
Text1017-6195978-87-7482-503-6
CRR 119 ACFM Report 1982.pdf
  
1983CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1982
119
11/11/2020 11:57 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Following a re~uest from the Commission of the European Economic
Communities with the consent of Norway and Iceland, ACFM met on 28-29
April 1982, at ICES head~uarters to provide advice on
A) herring stocks for which no final advice had been given
for 1982, and
B) reconsider the state of East Greenland cod for which a
new assessment was available.
In an earlier re~uest the EEC Commission had re~uested that the advice
from ACFM Should be presented in a certain standard form, including
graphs, and calculations of conse~uences of certain assumptions on
adherance to TACs.
This has been done, where possible and meaningful, but it has to be
indicated that in most of the stocks dealt with in this report, assumptions
on recruitment are so crucial that it is difficult to project catches
and spawning stocks beyond next year.
For the Celtic Sea herring 1982/83 and Division Vllj in 1982, no final
advice is available. This has been postponed to the July meeting of
ACFM, as ACFM considered it most sensible to combine the assessment of
the Celtic Sea herring with herring in Division Vllj. An assessment on
this basis will be available for ACFM's consideration at that time.
10.17895/ices.pub.5557HAWG
Text1017-6195978-87-7482-501-2
CRR 128 ACFM Report 1983.pdf
  
1984CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1983ACOM
128
11/24/2020 9:29 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This volume of the Cooperative Research Report contains the
reports of the Advisory Committee on Fishery Management in
1983.
ACFM held two meetings in 1983, 10-19 May and 26 October -
2 November at ICES headquarters.
From the first meeting were issued the complete report to
the International Baltic Sea Fishery Commission and Part I
of the report to the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission.
The second part of the report to the North-East Atlantic
Fisheries Commission was issued from the October-November
meeting. In order to make the advice reach managers as
fast as possible, the report was issued in chapters and
sections and distributed immediately after the chapters had
be_en finalised.
This volume contains the two reports to NEAFC together. They
have been edited into one report, bringing the stocks in
logical sequence and all advice on each stock into one
place.
The report to NEAFC is followed by the report to IBSFC.
The summary sheets, included for the benefit of managers
in the reports issued immediately after the meetings, have
not been included in this volume.
AFWG
Text1017-6195978-87-7482-498-5
CRR 131 ACFM Report 1984.pdf
  
1985CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1984ACOM
131
11/24/2020 9:32 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This volume of the Cooperative Research Report contains the
reports of the Advisory Committee on Fishery Management in 1984.
ACFM held two meetings in 1984, 8-18 May and 30 October - 7 November.
From the first meeting were issued the complete report to the
International Baltic Sea Fishery Commission (IBSFC), Part I of the
report to the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC),
and Part I of the report to the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation
Organisation (NASCO). The second part of the reports to the
NEAFC and NASCO was issued from the October-November meeting. In
order to make the advice reach managers as fast as possible, the
reports were issued in chapters and sections and distributed
immediately after the chapters had been finalised.
This volume contains the two reports to NEAFC together. They
have been edited into one report, bringing the stocks in logical
sequence and all advice on each stock into one place.
The report to NEAFC is followed by the reports to IBSFC and NASCa.
The stock summary sheets, included for the benefit of managers
in the reports issued immediately after the ACFM meetings, have
not been included in this volume.
Baltic Sea; codfish; herring10.17895/ices.pub.5558AFWG
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-495-4
CRR 137 ACFM Report 1985.pdf
  
1986CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1985ACFM
137
11/24/2020 9:48 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
In 1982, it was decided to change the time-table for the ACFM
meetings. Instead of having one main meeting in July, dealing
with most of the stocks, with an additional minor one in November
taking care of a few stocks, the work has now been more equally
divided between the two meetings, one in mid-May and one in late
October/early November.
The time-table of the assessment working groups had to be changed
accordingly, and the advice on the different stocks has been
distributed between the two meetings, taking into account various
factors such as the deadlines set by the management authorities
for receiving advice, timing of surveys and collection of other
scientific data, etc.
10.17895/ices.pub.5559AFWG
Text1017-6195978-87-7482-494-7
CRR 146 ACFM Report 1986.pdf
  
1987CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1986
146
11/6/2020 11:38 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This volume of the Cooperative Research Report contains the
reports of the Advisory Committee on Fishery Manaqement in 1986.
After the May meetinq, ICES issued the complete report to the
International Baltic Sea Fishery Commission (IBSFC), Part I of
the report to the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission
(NEAFC), and the report to the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation
Organisation (NASCO). The second part of the report to the NEAFC
was issued after the October-November meetinq. In order to
distribute the advice to managers as fast as possible, the
reports were issued in chapters and sections and distributed
immediately after the chapters had been completed.
The two reports to NEAFC have
placing the stocks in logical
on each stock in one place.
been edited into one report,
sequence and including all advice
The report to NEAFC is followed by the reports to IBSFC and
NASCO.
Stock summary sheets, included for the benefit of managers in the
reports for some of the stocks issued immediately after the ACFM
meetings, have not been included in this volume.
10.17895/ices.pub.5560AFWG
Text1017-6195978-87-7482-492-3
CRR 153 ACFM Report 1987.pdf
  
1988CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1987ACFM
153
11/24/2020 9:52 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
In 1982, it was decided to change the time table for the ACFM meetings. Instead of having
one main meeting in July dealing with most of the stocks, with an additional minor one in
November taking care of a few stocks, the work has now been more equally divided between the
two meetings, one "in mid-May and one in late October/early November.
The time table of the assessment working groups had to be changed accordingly, and the advice
on different stocks has been distributed between the two meetings, taking into account
various factors such as the deadlines set by the management authorities for receiving advice,
timing of surveys, and collection of other scientific data, etc.
10.17895/ices.pub.5561AFWG
Text1017-6195978-87-7482-490-9
CRR 161 ACFM 1988.pdf
  
1989CRRReports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 1988
161
11/6/2020 10:47 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
In 1982, it was decided to change the time table for the ACFM meetings. Instead of having
one main meeting in July dealing with most of the stocks, with an additional minor one in
November taking care of a few stocks, the work has now been more equally divided between the
two meetings, one in mid-May and one in late October/early November.
The time table of the assessment working groups had to be changed accordingly, and the advice
on different stocks has been distributed between the two meetings, taking into account
various factors such as the deadlines set by the management authorities for receiving advice,
timing of surveys, and collection of other scientific data, etc.
10.17895/ices.pub.5562AFWG
Text1017-6195978-87-7482-487-9
CRR348.pdf
  
2019CRRData-limited diadromous species – review of European statusFRSG
348
10/7/2020 9:44 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Update on the status, distribution and current monitoring of selected, poorly understood species that have completely or partially diadromous populations. Identification of biological knowledge gaps and key stressors of diadromous species.
Europe; North Atlantic; sea run; migratory; diadromous fish; Baltic Sea; fish; threats10.17895/ices.pub.5253WGDAM
TextWilson, K.; and Veneranta, L. (Eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-237-0
CRR349.pdf
  
2019CRRICES Report on Ocean Climate 2018EPDSG
349
10/7/2020 9:42 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
Long time-series on ocean properties are rare for the surface
ocean and even more uncommon for the deep ocean.
The North Atlantic region is unique in having a relatively
large number of locations where oceanographic data have
been collected repeatedly for multiple years or decades;
the longest records extend back more than a century.
The IROC combines decades of ocean observations across
the North Atlantic ICES region to describe the current
status of sea temperature and salinity, and atmospheric
conditions, as well as observed trends and recent variability.
The IROC production focuses the main efforts
from ICES WGOH (González-Pola et.al. 2019)
IROC; ocean climate10.17895/ices.pub.5461WGOH
TextGonzalez-Pola, C.; Larsen, K. M. H. ; Fratantoni, P.; and Beszczynska-Möller, A. (eds.)1017-6195978-87-7482-234-9
CRR342.pdf
  
2018CRRIEC/ISO Bowtie analysis of marine legislation: A case study of the Marine Strategy Framework DirectiveHAPISG
342
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Marine planning and coastal zone management require an understanding of the policy
context (Cormier et al., 2015) that addresses ecosystem, cultural, social, economic, and
legal aspects (Barnard and Elliott, 2015). Policy includes a suite of agreements, legislation,
and interpretations that are enabled by policy-making processes and public feedback
(Ehler and Douvere, 2009), while being informed by scientific and technical
knowledge. However, a plan requires the implementation of management measures to
carry into effect the objectives set in the said plan (Elliott et al., 2017). It is through legislation,
regulations, standards, and guidelines that such measures are implemented
within an operational context designed to meet expected outcomes to achieve the objectives
of the plan and ultimately reach the goals of the policy (Cormier et al., 2017).
Without a comprehensive suite of management measures to reduce the pressures that
result from human activities, cumulative effects cannot be adequately prevented, leaving
protection and conservation measures as the only option to mitigate the effects
(Stelzenmüller et al., 2018). Outside the changes resulting from continuously evolving
natural processes, the premise, here, is that cumulative effects reflect the effectiveness
management measures implemented across the relevant sectors of operation and jurisdictions.
When cumulative effects and impacts are observed, it implies that the system
of management measures and practices across the relevant sectors are not adequately
managing the pressures generated by their respective activities (Elliott et al., 2017).
Given that cumulative-effects assessments are typically focused on the effects and their
impacts, an assessment of the effectiveness of these measures and practices would also
be required to get a better understanding of the root causes of such effects and impacts
and to improve existing management strategies (de Jonge et al., 2006). Such assessment
must also include legislation, regulations, standards, and guidelines that are used to
implement measures and guide the practices as these set the scope of the management
approaches and objectives for each sector. The scope and objective of current measures
and practices may not have considered broader ecosystem considerations at the time
they were developed, resulting in cumulative effects and impacts.
marine spatial planning; coastal zone management; marine legislation; marine strategy framework directive10.17895/ices.pub.4504WGMPCZM
TextCormier, R.; Elliott, M.; Kannen, A.1017-6195978-87-7482-216-5
CRR047.pdf
  
1975CRRReport of the ICES Working Group on the Bløden Tagging Experiment. 1969/70
47
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In 1966 the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission asked the
Liaison Committee of ICES for guidance regarding the effects of measures
proposed to conserve the Downs stock. In particular it enquired into the
effect of regulation of the Blf6den industrial herring fishery and the consequent
effects on the Downs stock. From previous international tagging
experiments it had been calculated that in 1957 and 1958 the juvenile fishery
removed about 16-19 per cent of the stock per annum. Because of the limited
extent of these experiments and the changed nature of the juvenile fishery,
it was proposed that a new tagging experiment should be made, spreading the
liberations of tagged herring over a longer period and at a higher rate of
tagging.
10.17895/ices.pub.6091SCICOM
TextICES1017-6195978-87-7482-519-7
CRR248.pdf
  
2001CRRReport of the ICES Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment, 2001
248
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The ICES Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment (ACME) met from 5 to 9 June 2001. As part of its work during
this period, the ACME prepared responses to the requests made to ICES by the OSPAR Commission and the Helsinki
Commission. This report contains these responses. In addition to responses to direct requests, this report summarizes the
deliberations of ACME on topics for which advice was not directly requested but for which the ACME felt that there was
infonnation that would be of potential interest to the Commissions, ICES Member Countries, and other readers of this
report.
As a result of the creation of the Advisory Committee on Ecosystems (ACE), several topics previously handled by ACME
have been moved to the remit of ACE and scientific infonnation and advice on these topics can be found in the ACE report
for 2001. The topics covered include ecosystem effects of fishing, ecological quality objectives, ecosystem modelling and
assessment, marine mammals issues, biodiversity issues, and marine habitat classification and mapping
BEWG
Text1017-6195978-87-7482-540-1