Advice Statement
Cadium and lead: Determination in organic matrices with electrothermal furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometryU. Harms978-87-7482-255-42707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5027N/AText4/20/2021 2:15 PMRuth Anderson
A methodological approach to reduce deterioration of analyte response is the application of chemical separation techniques prior to the determination step. Extraction of metal ions in the form of a chelate by an organic solvent is one of the most suitable methods.
atomic absorption; spectrophotometry; lead; cadmium
4/8/2019 2:40 PM
Trace metals in sea water: Sampling and storage methodsP. A. Yeats978-87-7482-257-82707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5028N/AText4/20/2021 2:15 PMRuth Anderson
Sampling procedures for dissolved trace metals in sea water have progressed to the extent that it is now possible to describe reliable methods for the collection, preservation, and storage of seawater samples. The accumulated experience of a number of workers in the field as well as the results from several intercalibration exercises run by ICES, IOC, and others have been used to determine the best sampling procedures. For many metals a single procedure is adequate, however, for some others separate procedures must be used.
sample handling; sample storage; trace metals; seawater
4/9/2019 11:44 AM
Cadium in marine sediments: Determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopyR. T. T. Rantala; D. H. Loring978-87-7482-258-52707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5029N/AText4/20/2021 2:15 PMRuth Anderson
Cadmium is one of the most important toxic elements to be determined in environmental samples. Cd has proved, however, to be a difficult element to determine with good precision and relative accuracy. This is shown by the results of recent intercalibration exercises. It is suggested that the poor results are mostly due to the instrumental methods and inadequate use of reference materials to ensure good relative accuracy of the results. This paper discusses the various parameters that affect the precision and relative accuracy of Cd determinations and describes a simple, straightforward method based on the teflon bomb decomposition of the sample with HF-aquaregia followed by a graphite furnace atomic absorption determination of Cd using anun coated L'vovplat-form. The relative accuracy and precision of the method has been confirmed and found to be good by analyses of reference materials and through participation in intercalibration exercises.
atomic absorption; spectroscopy; graphite furnace; marine sediment; cadmium
4/9/2019 11:52 AM
Lipophilic organic material: An apparatus for extracting solids used for their concentration from sea waterM. Ehrhardt978-87-7482-259-22707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5030N/AText4/20/2021 2:15 PMRuth Anderson
Lipophilic organic substances, whether man-made, mobilized by human activities, or of recent natural origin, are usually dissolved in sea water at such minute concentrations that the chemical characterization and quantitative determination of single compounds are possible only after a sufficient quantity has been collected by concentration from relatively large (of the order of 100-1000 litres) volumes. Essentially two techniques have found widespread application in marine organic chemistry and pollution research, i.e., extraction, either batchwise or continuous, with a suitable water-immiscible solvent or sorption onto solids. Described below is a new apparatus and technique for purifying sorbant material from substances interfering with ultra-trace analyses and for desorbing analytes.
extraction; lipophilic substances; seawater
4/9/2019 11:55 AM
Primary production: Guidelines for measurement by 14C incorporationK. Richardson978-87-7482-260-82707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5031N/AText4/20/2021 2:15 PMRuth Anderson
These guidelines aim to standardize, in the ICES area, the methology of primary production measurements made by determination of C incorporation, taking into account, as far as possible, the diversity of techniques in use at the time of writing. As well as dealing with purely technical aspects of the method, new concepts have been incorporated which represent considerable modifications to the current approach to primary production determination and which may alter the calculated daily production estimates.
carbon 14 incorporation; primary production measurements; methodology; standardization
4/9/2019 11:56 AM
Control procedures: Good laboratory practice and quality assuranceF. A. J. M. Vijverberg; W. P. Cofino978-87-7482-261-52707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5032N/AText4/20/2021 2:15 PMRuth Anderson
Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) is one of the manifestations of the increased attention being paid to quality control measures in general. It provides a framework designed to bring the quality of laboratory results into accord with predefined standards and to maintain the quality at this level. The need for such a framework arises from the economic, political, and scientific implications that laboratory studies may have, which place demands on the reliability and comparability of the results.
This overview provides a brief introduction to GLP and Quality Asurance. The aim of this paper is to give insight into the available literature on these topics.The several components of GLP and Quality Assurance are reviewed but not discussed in detail.
good laboratory practice (GLP); quality assurance; Quality control
4/9/2019 11:58 AM
Suspended particulate matter: Collection methods for gravimetric and trace metal analysisP. A. Yeats; L. Brügmann978-87-7482-262-22707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5033N/AText4/20/2021 2:15 PMRuth Anderson
Filtration is the most commonly used method for separating the dissolved and particulate fractions of seawater samples. A wide variety of filter types with different pore sizes has been used for this purpose. Several studies have shown that the concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) measured using different types of filters can vary significantly. This document covers guidance for the collection of SPM for gravimetric and trace metal analysis.
suspended particulate matter; gravimetric analysis; trace metals; collection methods
4/9/2019 11:59 AM
Soft bottom macrofauna: Collection and treatment of samplesH. Rumohr978-87-7482-263-92707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5034N/AText4/20/2021 2:15 PMRuth Anderson
The aim of these recommendations is to standardize the methods used by different scientists for long-term benthos surveys, in order to increase the comparability of results for different areas and to enable, inter alia, detection of large-scale changes in the  system that would not otherwise be detected by a single scientist. In these recommendations, soft bottoms are defined as those with sediments ranging from mud to, and including, sand.
macrofauna; soft bottom; sample handling; sample treatment; methodology; standardization
4/9/2019 12:00 PM
Sediments and suspended particulate matter: Total and partial methods of digestionD. H. Loring; R. T. T. Rantala978-87-7482-264-62707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5035N/AText4/20/2021 2:15 PMRuth Anderson
In order to determine the major and trace metal concentrations of marine sediments and suspended particulate matter by wet chemical methods, it is necessary to dissolve all or part of the sample. Sample digestion methods commonly used are: (a) total decomposition, (b) strong acid digestion, or (c) moderate or weak acid extractions. This leaflet describes in detail the wet chemical methods for both
total decomposition and weak acid extraction of sediments and suspended particulate matter.
marine sediment; suspended particulate matter; wet chemical methods; acid digestion; decomposition
4/9/2019 12:02 PM
Organic halogens: Determination in marine media of adsorbable, volatile, or extractable compound totalsC. Grøn978-87-7482-265-32707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5036N/AText4/20/2021 2:15 PMRuth Anderson
The environmental impact of the release of halogenated organic compounds to the sea has become of increasing interest during recent decades. Most compounds in this group are xenobiotic of origin and, consequently, of potential environmental hazard. Thec haracterization of domestic and industrial discharges with respect to their contribution of haloorganic compounds to the sea, as well as monitoring to determine the occurrence and levels of halo-organic compounds in the marine environment, have been major topics. This leaflet reviews frequently employed methods for the determination of organic halogens as group parameters in water samples. The methods are evaluated with respect to their applicability in wastewater characterization and marine monitoring. Results from the analysis of organic halogens in samples of marine water, sediments, and biological organisms are summarized. It appears that determinations of extractable organic halogens (EOX) in marine samples are the methods of prime interest.
organic halogens; halogenated organic compounds; determination methods; methodology
4/9/2019 12:03 PM
Biological effects of contaminants: Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) embryo bioassayJ. E. Thain978-87-7482-266-02707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5037N/AText5/4/2021 8:48 PMRuth Anderson
This paper describes the modified oyster embryo bioassay method which has been used by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), UK, to obtain a measure of the deterioration in biological water quality in UK coastal areas receiving anthropogenic discharges.
biological water quality; contaminants; oyster embryo; bioassays; methodology10.17895/ices.pub.5082
4/9/2019 12:04 PM
Hydrocarbons: Review of methods for analysis in sea water, biota, and sedimentsM. Ehrhardt; J. Klungsøyr; R. J. Law978-87-7482-267-72707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5038N/AText4/20/2021 2:29 PMRuth Anderson
This paper presents a review of methods for analysing hydrocarbons in seawater, biota and sediments. It is intended as an introduction to the subject and a collection of refrences from which a judicious choice has to be made based upon the specific objectives of an investigation.
hydrocarbon analysis; methodology; marine biota; marine sediment; seawater; aromatic hydrocarbons
4/9/2019 12:05 PM
Biological effects of contaminants: Microplate method for measurment of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in fishF. Galgani; J. F. Payne (Eds.)978-87-7482-268-42707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5039N/AText6/29/2021 9:26 AMRuth Anderson
Mixed function oxidase (MFO) can be used as a monitoring tool for measuring the effects of pollutants. The MFO system requires molecular O2 and NADPH and involves a co-binding protein: cytochromeP-450. The cytochrome P-450I A1 isozyme in fish can be induced by polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons (PAHs). Ethoxyresorufin-a-deethylase (EROD) activity is a specific assay for the xenobiotically inducible form of cytochrome P-450, thus making measurement of this activity in fish liver a good means of evaluating fish response to PAH contamination. This paper describes a method for routine measurements of EROD in flatfish. The method uses microplate technology and issuitable for use in the field on research vessels and in the laboratory.
contaminants; bioassays; ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase; EROD
4/9/2019 12:06 PM
Temporal trend monitoring: Introduction to the study of contaminant levels in marine biotaJ. F. Uthe; C. L. Chou; R. K. Misra; P. A. Yeats; D. H. Loring; C. J. Musial; W. Cofino978-87-7482-269-12707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5040WGSATMText4/20/2021 7:39 PMRuth Anderson
The study of contaminants in marine species, sediments, and sea water has been of interest to the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) since the early 1970s. The investigation of temporal trends (changes over time in one area) in contaminant levels in fish and shellfish, both as monitors of their environment and from a human health concern, and in sediments and sea water is a topic currently being addressed by the ICES Working Group on the Statistical Aspects of Trend Monitoring (WGSATM). This paper is intended to be the first of a series providing specific details for temporal trend tudies using different types of species or marine compartments. This first paper is a general one, describing the types of problems encountered in monitoring temporal trends in contaminant levels in finfish.
marine biota; temporal trend monitoring; contaminants
4/9/2019 12:08 PM
Temporal trend monitoring: Contaminant levels in tissues of Atlantic codJ. F. Uthe, R. K. Misra, C. L. Chou; D. P. Scott; C. J. Musial978-87-7482-270-72707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5041WGSATMText4/20/2021 7:50 PMRuth Anderson
The study of contaminants in marine species, sediments, and sea water has been of interest to the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) since the early 1970s. The investigation of temporal trends (changes over time in one area) in contaminant levels in fish and shellfish, both as monitors of their environment and from a human health concern, and in sediments and sea water is a topic currently being addressed by the ICES Working Group on the Statistical Aspects of Trend Monitoring (WGSATM). This is part of a series of leaflets and describes the Canadian techniques used to study temporal trends in contaminant levels, both tissue concentrations and burdens (tissue concentration times the total weight of that tissue in the  animal), inindividual Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) muscle and liver tissues over the period1977-1985
atlantic cod; temporal trend monitoring; contaminants
4/9/2019 12:09 PM
Benthic communities: Use in monitoring point-source dischargesH. L. Rees; C. Heip; M. Vincx; M. M. Parker978-87-7482-271-42707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5042N/AText4/21/2021 8:57 AMRuth Anderson
Following a request from the ICES Advisory Committee on Marine Pollution (ACMP), the Benthos Ecology WorkingGroup (BEWG) undertook to report on the utility of field surveys of benthic fauna for monitoring the impact of point-source inputs (dumping or discharge of wastes). In response, BEWG have so far provided guidelines for benthic monitoring around discharge points. The present report revises and extends the coverage of these documents to include both a general appraisal of the utility of benthos studies in pollution monitoring, structured in line with the earlier ACMP request, and a detailed review of the use of meiofauna, in view of relatively recent developments in this field.
benthic communitities; monitoring; point source discharges
4/9/2019 12:52 PM
Nutrients: Practical notes on their determination in sea waterD. Kirkwood978-87-7482-272-12707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5043HAPISGMCWGText4/21/2021 11:35 AMRuth Anderson
These notes are aimed primarily at the freshwater chemist beginning to conduct analyses of nutrients in saline waters, but they will also be useful to the complete newcomer to the application of automated colorimetric techniques to natural waters in general. The emphasis is on automated techniques, but much of the material should be of interest to analysts who still use manual methods. The term 'nutrients' is a little difficult to define precisely, but from the point of view of the
marine chemist, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and silicate are those most commonly encountered.
nutrients; seawater; sampling; marine chemistry
4/9/2019 12:53 PM
Contaminants in marine organisms: Pooling strategies for monitoring mean concentrationsM. D. Nicholson; R. J. Fryer978-87-7482-274-52707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5044WGSATMText4/20/2021 8:09 PMRuth Anderson
Samples of marine organisms collected for contaminant monitoring are often pooled before being chemically analysed. However, there are several questions associated with pooling, including: what is an appropriate pooling strategy? how should data from pools be statistically analysed? how should results derived from pooled data be interpreted? This document is an introduction to the statistical aspects of pooling.
contaminants; marine organisms; pooling
4/9/2019 12:54 PM
Common diseases and parasites of fish in the North Atlantic: Training guide for identificationD. Bucke; D. Vethaak; T. Lang; S. Mellergaard978-87-7482-275-22707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5045WGPDMOText4/21/2021 8:28 AMRuth Anderson
During the past 20 years, there has been an increasing number of field surveys investigating the occurrence and distribution of fish diseases as a tool for monitoring the effects of environmental changes, including marine pollution. Fish diseases are considered to be an appropriate indicator in this context because the outbreak of a disease represents an end-point of biological significance
integrating all environmental factors affecting fish health.
This Training Guide gives advice to specialists and non-specialists on the following topics:
• fish species suitable for disease monitoring;
• sampling procedures;
• disease examination procedures;
• diseases useful for monitoring purposes and their diagnosis and classification;
• reporting of results;
• statistical methods applicable for data analysis
North Atlantic; parasites; diseases; identification
4/9/2019 12:56 PM
Temporal trend monitoring: Robust method for analysing contaminant trent monitoring dataM. D. Nicholson; R. J. Fryer; J. R. Larsen978-87-7482-276-92707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5046WGSAEMText4/21/2021 8:57 AMRuth Anderson
This document describes a new method of assessing contaminant trends in fish muscle, fish liver, and shellfish. Previous methods of assessing trend data have often been complicated by the need to respond to unusual features of the data, either in the way they were collected, processed, or in their distribution. These complications are discussed in detail to show the reasoning behind the method described here, which aims to provide a simpler, robust and more complete method of analysing and presenting trends. Essentially, the method summarizes trends using a smoother, a specific class of smooth curves fitted to median log-concentrations. The theory and methodology of fitting smoothers is new and our knowledge of the performance of the fitted smoothers, particularly with small sample sizes, is only approximate. Although a preliminary application of the new method to the 1993 assessment of the data from the Joint Monitoring Programme of the Oslo and Paris Commissions was promising, more assessment and development of the method will be necessary. A very simple smoother is used here to make the computations and theory easy to follow. A detailed worked example is provided. Statistical theory and formulae are included as annexes.
contaminants; trend monitoring
4/9/2019 12:58 PM
Chlorobiphenyls in marine sediments: Guidelines for determinationF. Smedes; J. de Boer978-87-7482-277-62707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5047N/AText4/21/2021 9:02 AMRuth Anderson
The analysis of chlorinated biphenyls in sediments generally includes extraction with organic solvents, clean-up, removal of sulphur, collum fractionation and gas chromatographic separation, mostly with electron capture detection. All of the steps in the procedure are susceptible to insufficient recovery and/or contamination. Different methods applied to each of
these steps are discussed with their advantages and disadvantages. Where possible, quality control procedures are recommended in order to check the method's performance. Gas chromatographic conditions are discussed with regard to injection, separation, detection and system performance. In addition, the quality control aspects relating to calibrants, extraction, and clean-up are considered. These guidelines are intended to encourage and assist analytical chemists to critically (re)consider their methods and to improve their procedures and/or the associated quality control measures, where necessary.
Chlorobiphenyls; marine sediments; guidelines
4/9/2019 12:59 PM
Biological effects of contaminants: Cholinesterase inhibitation by organophosphate and carbamate compoundsG. Bocquené; F. Galgani978-87-7482-278-32707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5048N/AText4/21/2021 9:08 AMRuth Anderson
The recent development of biomarkers based on the study of biological responses of organisms exposed to chemical contaminants has provided the biochemical tools essential to the implementation of programmes for monitoring the biological effects of contaminants. At the initiative of ICES and UNESCO-IOC study groups, several international workshops have advocated the development of biochemical methods for contaminant monitoring programmes in the marine environment. Among the major contaminants in the marine environment, insecticides have the potential to cause ecotoxicological effects because of their strong persistence (e.g., organochlorines) or high toxicity (e.g., organophosphates and carbamates). Although the transfer of these contaminants to the marine environment is generally diffuse and chronic, there are occasions when accidental discharges can cause ecological and economic impacts. A biomarker to monitor specifically the effects of organophosphates and carbamates is needed to facilitate the assessment of the discharge of these substances into the marine environment. Acetylcholinesterase (AChElEC inhibition has been used as a biomarker of the effects of organophosphate and carbamate compounds. This paper describes a method for the determination of acetylcholinesterase in invertebrate and vertebrate tissues and the use of this technique in monitoring.
contaminants; Cholinesterase inhibitation; organophosphates; carbamates
4/9/2019 1:00 PM
Biological effects of contaminants: Determination of CYP1A-dependent mono-oxygenase activity in dab by fluorimetric measurement of EROD activityR. Stagg; A. McIntosh978-87-7482-279-02707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5049N/AText9/30/2020 9:49 AMSøren Killerup Larsen
This paper describes a method for the determination of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) in fish liver by the measurement of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity. The proposed method is by fluorescent assay of resorufin using internal standardization. The method is specifically for measurements made in dab (Limanda limanda L..), but is suitable for adaption to other species by small changes in assay conditions. The principle of the method, the sampling requirements, the assay procedures and the reporting of the results are described. Sources of error and quality control procedures are also specified.
contaminants; CYP1A-dependent mono-oxygenase; Dab; EROD activity; fluorimetric measurement; ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase
4/9/2019 1:01 PM
Biological effects of contaminants: Use of imposex in the dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus) as a bioindicator of tributyltin pollutionP. E. Gibbs978-87-7482-280-62707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5050N/AText4/21/2021 9:12 AMRuth Anderson
This document describes a method for detecting contamination of the marine environment by tributyltin (TBT) using a sensitive neogastropod, the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus (L.), as a bioindicator. Exposure of female N. lapillus to TBT induces masculinization; this induction of masculinization has been termed 'imposex'. The indices that have been employed to measure imposex in N. lapillus are described here, together with a brief account of the biology of this organism.
contaminants; imposex; dogwhelk; tributyltin
4/9/2019 1:02 PM
Biological effects of contaminants: Measurement of DNA adducts in fish by 32P-postlabellingW. L. Reichert; B. L. French; J. E. Stein978-87-7482-281-32707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5051N/AText4/21/2021 9:20 AMRuth Anderson
This document describes in detail the 32P-postlabelling method and its application to fish. Several recent studies have shown that the 32P-postlabelling method can be used to detect and measure the levels of DNA modified by large, hydrophobic aromatic compounds in teleosts. Moreover, the levels of hepatic DNA adducts in wild fish positively correlate with the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) present in marine sediments in several cases, and a strong positive correlation has been observed between sediment concentrations of PACs and the prevalence of neoplastic lesions in liver of marine flatfish. Laboratory studies with model PACs and sediment extracts also have shown that the PAC-DNA adducts formed are persistent and have chromatographic characteristics similar to DNA adducts detected in wild fish. These findings suggest that the levels of hepatic DNA adducts found in fish tissues can function as molecular dosimeters of exposure to potentially genotoxic environmental contaminants, such as high molecular weight PACs. The 32P-postlabelling assay has been used as a marker of exposure to potentially genotoxic contaminants in environmental
monitoring studies, such as NOAA's National Status and Trends (NS&T) Program and in the Bioeffects Surveys of NOAA's Coastal Ocean Program.
contaminants; DNA adducts; 32P-postlabelling
4/9/2019 1:03 PM
Biological effects of contaminants: Quantification of metallothionein (MT) in fish liver tissueK. Hylland978-87-7482-282-02707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5053N/AText4/21/2021 9:20 AMRuth Anderson
This document describes methods to analyse the protein metallothionein in fish tissues. Metallothionein is induced by and binds essential (Cu, Zn) and non-essential (Cd, Hg) metals
and is used in monitoring programmes as a marker for environmental metal exposure. The main focus is on the use and development of immunochemical procedures (ELISA). In addition, two alternative methods, electrochemical and spectrophotometric, are described.
contaminants; metallothionein; fish liver tissue
4/9/2019 2:08 PM
Soft bottom macrofauna: Collection, treatment, and quality assurance of samplesH. Rumohr978-87-7482-283-72707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5054BEWGText4/21/2021 9:24 AMRuth Anderson
The aim of these recommendations is to standardize the methods used by different scientists for benthos surveys in order to increase the comparability of results for different areas. The results of ICES/HELCOM Quality Assurance workshops, intercalibrations, and ring tests have been incorporated in this set of recommendations in order to increase the quality, reliability and, thus, comparability of benthos data. This set of recommendations covers all steps from the design of the sampling programme to considerations of which gear to use, and all ship-board methods such as sampling with grabs, corers, dredges, and trawls. There is no single standard sampling gear for benthos investigations. The choice of a suitable sampler is a compromise between specific sampling characteristics in different sediment regimes in the area to be sampled, good handling characteristics at sea in bad weather conditions, suitability for various ships, financial limitations, tradition, and scientific questions. Criteria for the rejection of samples are identified. Treatment of samples is described in detail including sieving, transfer of the sample to the sample vessel, fixation, staining, and labelling, followed by a description of laboratory procedures such as sorting, taxonomic identification, and biomass determinations. A list of items for in-house quality assurance is included together with diagrams of suitable sieving devices and details for a warp-rigged Van Veen grab.
soft bottom macrofauna; samples; quality assurance
4/9/2019 2:10 PM
Biological effects of contaminants: Sediment bioassay using the polychaete Arenicola marinaJ. Thain; S. Bifield978-87-7482-284-42707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5055N/AText5/4/2021 1:53 PMRuth Anderson
The method described here is a whole-sediment reworker bioassay using the polychaete Arenicola marina, a direct deposit feeder that is widely distributed in European coastal waters and on the east coast of North America. This method has been tested nationally in the UK as well as in ring tests under the Paris Commission. It is suitable for carrying out bioassays on field-collected sediments and also for toxicity testing. Bioassay endpoints include both mortality and a non-lethal indication of effect (inhibition of casting).
contaminants; sediment bioassay; toxicity; polychaeta
4/9/2019 2:12 PM
Biological monitoring: General guidelines for quality assuranceA. P. Scott978-87-7482-252-32707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5056N/AText5/4/2021 2:03 PMRuth Anderson
These guidelines have been prepared by the ICES/OSPAR Steering Group on Quality Assurance of Biological Measurements in the Northeast Atlantic (SGQAE), as part of its role to encourage the production of biological data of consistent quality by member countries. The biological measures covered are: chlorophyll a, phytoplankton, macrozoobenthos, and macrophytobenthos, reflecting the initial remit of the Steering Group to address eutrophication-related studies according to the specifications of the OSPAR Joint Assessment and Monitoring Programme (JAMP). Tables of critical quality assurance (QA) factors and priority QA actions for these measures are presented. However, the guidelines for developing effective QA/AQC (analytical quality control) procedures governing field and laboratory work will be found to have a more general relevance to laboratories engaged in biological studies in the marine environment. QA guidelines are presented across the full range of monitoring activities, i.e., from the objective-setting and sampling design stages of field surveys, to the generation, analysis, and archiving of data. Attention to all these activities is necessary in order to ensure the production of good quality information that continues to meet the purpose of scientific assessments. Where possible, illustrative examples of good practice in relation to QA of biological measures are included.
biological montoring; quality assurance
4/9/2019 2:13 PM
Recruitment studies: Manual on precision and accuracy of toolsM. Belchier; C. Clemmesen; D. Cortes; T. Doan; A. Folkvord; A. Garcia; A. Geffen; H. Høie; A. Johannessen; E. Moksness; H. de Pontual; T. Ramirez; D. Schnack; B. Sveinsbo978-87-7482-253-02707-699710.17895/ices.pub.5057N/AText4/21/2021 10:16 AMRuth Anderson
This manual is one of the results of the project Precision and Accuracy of Tools in Recruitment Studies (PARS), financed by the EU (FAIR-CT96–1371). The project PARS is concerned with improving the methodologies used in investigations and the monitoring of the early life stages of fish larvae, especially herring and sardine. These are important in both stock assessments and strategic research intended to improve predictive capability. The project deals with precision
and accuracy issues in two categories of measurements, which together encompass most of the data that are routinely required from samples of early life stages of fish: • the growth and condition of individuals; • the origin of individuals. This  manual  is  an  important  step  for  standardizing  techniques  used  in  recruitment  studies  and  will  be  beneficial  to  anyone  working  in  the  field  of  fish  recruitment  in  order  to  increase  the  knowledge of fish stocks and their management.
recruitment studies; precision; accuracy; tools
4/9/2019 2:14 PM
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