Ecosystem overviews

Greater North Sea Ecoregion

Other pressures

Various emerging environmental pressures in the Greater North Sea are receiving greater public and political attention and are the subject of research initiatives to assess the nature and scale of impact.

​​​​​​​These include​​​​​:

Death or injury by collision 

​​​​The growing amount of wind farms increases the possibility of seabirds colliding with the turning blades of the turbines.

Marine litter

Marine debris, also known as marine litter, is man-made waste that has deliberately or accidentally been released in the sea, ocean, or waterway. Major contributing activities are tourism, fishing, and shipping.

Underwater sound

Sound from the human world disrupts life below the surface, where many living creatures depend on sound as a primary sense for mating, hunting, and survival. The main anthropogenic activities that produce sound are shipping, oil exploration, and pile-driving of wind farm foundations.​

Other main pressures on the Greater North Sea ecosystem

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Greater North Sea Ecoregion

International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) · Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer (CIEM)
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