Substrate loss pressure is associated with activities such as land claim and new coastal defences or the installation of infrastructures such as hydrocarbon production facilities, wind farm foundations, marinas, pipelines, cables, and scour protection.
The Celtic Seas ecoregion has a large number of artificial structures along its coastlines. These include:
The presence of offshore installations such as wind farms also changes the substrate.
Location of land reclamation projects (orange triangle) and hard (green outline) and soft (yellow outline) coastal defence
structures. (Source: OSPAR.) Click on the image to enlarge.